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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Roots smooth, pale yellow, without bulblets or plantlets. Leaf: deciduous; bud glabrous; sporophore and trophophore (or 2 sporophores) joined at or well above ground level; trophophore generally 1–2-pinnate (simple or entire or 0), linear to deltate to ternately triangular, thin to fleshy, pinnae ovate to oblong and midribbed or wedge- to fan-shaped and not midribbed, veins free, forked; sporophore 1–2-pinnate, rarely absent. Sporangia: not sunken in axis; stalk 0 or short.
25–35 species: generally temperate to arctic or alpine. (Greek: bunch of grapes, from clusters of sporangia) [Stensvold 2007 Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State Univ; Wagner & Wagner 1993 FNANM 2:85–106] Difficult, needs study; most species uncommon, sporadic; good sampling of populations highly desirable in specimens, which must be carefully spread and pressed for identification. Botrychium multifidum moved to Sceptridium. Botrychium pedunculosum W.H. Wagner, differing from Botrychium pinnatum in having trophophore stalk ± = trophophore rachis (vs trophophore stalk 0 to 1/10 trophophore rachis), recently confirmed for California, based on discovery in summer of 2010 near Reynolds Creek, western of Yosemite National Park, Calaveras Co.

Key to Botrychium

1. Leaf divided into 2 nearly identical sporophores and no trophophore ..... B. paradoxum

1' Leaf divided into trophophore and sporophore (latter occasionally aborted)

2. Trophophore ternate, appearing to be divided into 3 ± equal segments due to great enlargement and dissection of basal pinna pair

3. Trophophore sessile or nearly so, stalk of sporophore 0.3–0.7 × trophophore ..... B. pumicola (2)

3' Trophophore clearly stalked, sporophore stalk generally >= trophophore ..... B. simplex

4. Middle pinnae narrowly attached to rachis, slightly or not decurrent; plants yellow-green; generally in seasonally moist meadows ..... var. compositum

4' Middle pinnae broadly attached to rachis, strongly decurrent; plants blue-green; generally in hard-water-saturated substrate ..... var. simplex (2)

2' Trophophore pinnate; basal pinnae not disproportionately enlarged

5. Basal pinna pair pinnately dissected, midribbed; pinnae ovate to elliptic, broadest near base or middle ..... B. pinnatum

5' Basal pinna pair entire or palmately dissected, fan-shaped, broadest at outer margin

6. Trophophore and sporophore joined well below mid-leaf, generally at ground level ..... B. simplex or B. pumicola (small or shade pls, see couplet 3 to separate the species)

6' Trophophore and sporophore joined generally near or distal to mid-leaf

7. Side margins of simple pinnae ± parallel or, if cleft into segments, side margins of segments ± parallel

8. Trophophore ± sessile; sporophore stalk very short, pinnae elongate, longer than wide, not decurrent to rachis ..... B. lineare

8' Trophophore and sporophore stalk long, pinnae rhomboid, as long as wide, strongly decurrent ..... B. montanum

7' Side margins of simple pinnae converging at > 30°, or, if cleft into segments, segments wedge-shaped

9. Side margins of basal pinnae converging at (90)150–180°; pinnae touching to overlapping, especially toward tip

10. Middle pinnae spreading, ± perpendicular to rachis; pinna texture delicate, outer margins generally finely crenate to dentate; basal sporophore branches often downturned, occurring in or near saturated substrate ..... B. crenulatum (2)

10' Middle pinnae ascending; pinna texture firm, outer margins entire to wavy to coarsely toothed; basal sporophore branches generally not downturned

11. Spores 33–39 µm in longest diam ..... B. lunaria

11' Spores 46–57 µm in longest diam ..... B. yaaxudakeit

9' Side margins of basal pinnae converging at 30–120(160)°; pinnae generally well-spaced to touching

12. Pinnae spreading, ± perpendicular to rachis; fertile portion of sporophore triangular to deltate; basal sporophore branches often downturned

13. Pinnae fan-shaped, texture delicate, deep green, outer margins generally finely crenate to dentate; occurring in or near saturated substrate ..... B. crenulatum (2) (sun plants)

13' Pinnae oblong or rounded without a sharp angle between side and outer margin, texture thick, yellow-green, outer margins entire or shallowly cleft; occurring in well-drained sites ..... B. tunux

12' Pinnae ascending; fertile portion of sporophore oblong to deltate; basal sporophore branches not downturned

14. Pinnae entire to symmetrically cleft into 2–4 segments, outer margins dentate; sporophore branches short, stiffly erect ..... B. ascendens

14' Pinnae entire to irregularly cleft or shallowly lobed, outer margins entire to coarsely toothed or lobed; sporophore branches long, spreading ..... B. minganense


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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