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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Shrub, tree; generally dioecious. Stem: bark thin, peeling in strips; young shoots 4-angled to cylindric. Leaf: opposite (4-ranked) or whorled in 3s (6-ranked), scale-like to less often awl- or needle-like. Pollen cone: generally terminal; pollen sacs 2–6 per scale. Seed cone: generally terminal, 5–18 mm, ± spheric, ± fleshy, berry-like, glaucous or not, dry or resinous, generally maturing 2nd year, surrounded at base by minute scale-like bracts; scales 3–8, fused, opposite or whorled in 3s. Seed: 1–3 per cone, ± flat, unwinged, often not angled, generally animal-dispersed over 2 years; cotyledons 2–6.
67 species, 28 var.: northern hemisphere except northeastern Africa. (Latin: juniper) [Adams & Nguyen 2007 Phytologia 89:43–57; Adams et al. 2006 Phytologia 88:299–309]
Unabridged references: [Adams 2004 Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus. Trafford Publ., Vancouver]
1. Leaf awl- or needle-like, suberect to spreading but not appressed; pollen, seed cones axillary; shrub < 1 m (sect. Juniperus) ..... J. communis
2. Leaf 10–20+ mm; glaucous stomatal band ± 1–1.5 × as wide as green leaf margin ..... var. depressa
2' Leaf 5–10(12) mm; glaucous stomatal band 2–4 × as wide as green leaf margin
3. Mature seed cone elongate to ± spheric; glaucous stomatal band 3–4 × as wide as green leaf margin ..... var. jackii
3' Mature seed cone spheric; glaucous stomatal band 2 × as wide as green leaf margin ..... var. saxatilis
1' Leaf generally scale-like, closely appressed; pollen, seed cones terminal; tree, shrub > 1 m (sect. Sabina)
4. Seed cone maturing blue-black; tree 5–15(30) m
5. Bark red-brown; leaves generally whorled in 3s; generally dioecious; High North Coast Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains ..... J. grandis
5' Bark brown; leaves opposite or whorled in 3s; generally ± monoecious; High Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... J. occidentalis
4' Seed cone maturing red-brown; shrub, tree 1–8(10) m
6. Leaf gland obvious; trunks several at base; generally dioecious ..... J. californica
6' Leaf gland obscure; trunk generally 1 at base; monoecious ..... J. osteosperma
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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