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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy; sap milky; generally monoecious.
Stem: prostrate to erect, < 5 dm; branches alternate.
Leaf: cauline, opposite, short-petioled; blade base generally asymmetric, veins dark green.
Inflorescence: flower-like, generally 1 per node; involucre ± bell-shaped, bracts 5, fused; glands 4, distal appendages generally colorful, petal-like; flowers central.
Staminate flower: 3–many, generally in 5 clusters around pistillate flower, each flower a stamen.
Pistillate flower: 1, central, stalked; ovary chambers 3, styles 3, separate or fused at base, divided to entire.
Fruit: capsule, round to 3-angled or -lobed in ×-section.
Seed: generally 4-angled, smooth or sculptured.
± 250 species: dry temperate, subtrop worldwide, especially Am. (Greek: ancient name for kind of prostrate plant) [Wheeler 1941 Rhodora 43:97–154, 168–286]
1. Infls generally in dense axillary cyme-like clusters, occasionally 1 per node; leaves 8–35 mm; stem generally erect (decumbent) ..... C. nutans
1' Infls 1 per node, occasionally crowded on lateral branches; leaves 1–28 mm; stem prostrate to ascending, sometimes erect
2. Involucre, fruit hairy; stem, leaves generally hairy or becoming glabrous
4. Involucre urn-shaped; staminate flowers <= 10 — DSon ..... C. arizonica
4' Involucre ± bell-shaped; staminate flowers >= 15
5. Seed 3-angled, transversely 4–5-ridged, ridges rounded ..... C. pediculifera
5' Seed 4-angled, smooth to ± wrinkled
6. St and leaf hairs short, straight ..... C. polycarpa (2)
6' St and leaf tomentose or hairs long, appressed, dense
7. Involucre glands red ..... C. melanadenia
7' Involucre glands green to yellow ..... C. vallis-mortae
8. Staminate flowers 40–60; fruit 2–2.5 mm; n ScV ..... C. ocellata subsp. rattanii
8' Staminate flowers < 20; fruit <= 2 mm; widespread
9. Gland appendage deeply 3–5-lobed; involucre urn-shaped ..... C. setiloba
9' Gland appendage entire, shallowly scalloped, or 0; involucre bell-shaped or obconic
10. Gland appendage 0; seed smooth to slightly wrinkled ..... C. micromera (2)
10' Gland appendage present; seed wrinkled or ridged
11. Fr 1.5–2 mm; seed wrinkled; gland appendage narrower than gland ..... C. serpyllifolia subsp. hirtula
11' Fr <= 1.5 mm; seed transversely ridged or wrinkled; appendage equal to or wider than gland
12. Seeds transversely wrinkled; fruit evenly strigose; appendage equal in width to gland ..... C. maculata
12' Seeds transversely ridged; fruit hairy on lobes only; appendage equal or greater in width than gland ..... C. prostrata
2' Involucre, fruit glabrous; stem, leaves glabrous, sometimes hairy
13. Stipules fused into wide, membranous scale
14. Perennial; staminate flowers >= 15 ..... C. albomarginata
14' Annual; staminate flowers 5–10 ..... C. serpens
13' Stipules separate or fused, but not a wide, membranous scale
16. Glands round, appendage 0; leaves 2–4 mm ..... C. parishii
16' Glands elliptic or oblong, appendage present; leaves 1–11 mm
17. Fr >= 2 mm; stipules separate; seed >= 2 mm ..... C. fendleri
17' Fr 1–1.5 mm; proximal stipules fused; seed 1–1.5 mm ..... C. polycarpa (2)
18. Lvs linear, base symmetric; stem prostrate to erect — PR, D
19. Glands 1–4, oval, appendage narrower than gland; fruit and seed > 1.5 mm; seed smooth; stem prostrate to ascending ..... C. parryi
19' Glands ± 4, round, appendage wider than gland or 0; fruit and seed <= 1.5 mm; seed transversely ridged; stem erect ..... C. revoluta
18' Lvs lanceolate to round, base asymmetric; stem prostrate to decumbent
20. Lf margin toothed, at least toward tip
21. Style entire; gland appendages deeply 3–5-lobed ..... C. hooveri
21' Style divided; gland appendages entire or shallowly lobed
22. Plant hairy to subglabrous; seed transversely ridged ..... C. abramsiana (2)
22' Plant glabrous; seed smooth, wrinkled, or transversely ridged
23. Seed transversely ridged; appendage wider than gland ..... C. glyptosperma
23' Seed smooth to wrinkled; appendage narrower than gland ..... C. serpyllifolia subsp. serpyllifolia
20' Lf margin entire
24. Seed ± 2 angled, flattened lengthwise, surface smooth; gland ovate ..... C. platysperma
24' Seed 3–4-angled, surface smooth, wrinkled, or transversely ridged; glands round or elliptic
25. Gland appendage present; seed transversely ridged ..... C. abramsiana (2)
25' Gland appendage 0; seed smooth or wrinkled
26. Fr < 1.5 mm; seed 1–1.5 mm; staminate flowers 2–5 ..... C. micromera (2)
26' Fr 2–2.5 mm; seed 1.5–2 mm; staminate flowers 40–60 ..... C. ocellata
27. Lf <= 15 mm, lanceolate to ovate; D ..... subsp. arenicola
27' Lf < 10 mm, ovate, sickle-shaped; CA-FP ..... subsp. ocellata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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