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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Perennial herb, rhizomed [not], glabrous; roots fibrous. Stem: generally erect, 3-angled or cylindric, solid. Leaf: basal and cauline, 3-ranked; blades 4–11 per stem, linear, generally > sheaths, flat [V-shaped in ×-section], margins, generally midribs scabrous; sheaths not fibrous; ligule present or 0. Inflorescence: terminal or in axils of 1–3 distal leaves, spikelets 1 or few to many in panicle or head-like clusters; inflorescence bracts generally 3, leaf-like; spikelets < 5 mm diam; flower bracts 10–50, spiraled, 1–3.5 mm, sharp-pointed, each with 1 flower in axil. Flower: bisexual; perianth of (0)3–6 bristles, < or >> fruit, straight or strong-curled, smooth to barbed or toothed, generally persistent on fruit; stamens 1–3; style 2–3-branched, base persistent. Fruit: 0.5–1.8 mm, ovate, obovate, or elliptic, 2–3-sided, minute-papillate or -pitted.
± 35 species: North America, Mexico, Eurasia, Australia. [Whittemore & Schuyler 2002 FNANM 23:8–21] Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Amphiscirpus, Bolboschoenus, Isolepis, Schoenoplectus, Trichophorum.
Unabridged references: [Schuyler 1967 Proc Acad Nat Sci Philadelphia 119:295–323; Browning et al. 1995 Brittonia 47:433–445; Smith 1995 Novon 5:97–102]

Key to Scirpus

1. Spikelets all or many solitary, ± stalked; perianth bristles strongly curled in fruit

2. Perianth bristles exceeding flower bracts; stem 3–5 mm diam at middle; flower bract midrib ± green to pale ± brown, ± obscure; fruit 0.6–0.9 mm ..... S. cyperinus

2' Perianth bristles not exceeding flower bracts; stem 0.6–3 mm diam at middle; flower bract midrib generally green, prominent; fruit 1–1.8 mm ..... S. pendulus

1' Spikelets in head-like clusters, sessile; perianth bristles ± curled or curved to straight in fruit

3. Ligule present; fruit generally 2-angled; stigmas 2(3); perianth bristles curved to straight in fruit, fine-toothed ..... S. microcarpus

3' Ligule 0; fruit generally 3-angled; stigmas 3(2); perianth bristles ± curled to straight in fruit, fine-toothed above middle

4. Perianth bristles >> fruit, teeth generally ascending; flower bract generally ± black ..... S. congdonii

4' Perianth bristles < to > fruit, teeth generally reflexed; flower bract green to brown or ± black ..... S. diffusus


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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