Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



John M. Miller & Lauramay T. Dempster

Perennial herb generally from short, thick, ± branched taproot; tuberous root generally 0 (or spheric). Stem: prostrate to erect, scape-like or branched. Leaf: generally in basal rosette and cauline, simple, entire or not; base wide; margin generally ± translucent. Inflorescence: ± scapose; cyme, panicle, raceme, or ± umbel; stems 1–many, generally leafless but bracted, disjointing in age or not, 1–many flowered; pedicel 0–30 mm. Flower: sepals 2–8, free, persistent; petals 4–19, white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, rose, purple, overlapped in bud, often with pink or dark purple veins; stamens 1–50; styles 2–8, fused at base, stigmas 2–8, thread-like. Fruit: 6–9 mm, spheric or ovoid, circumscissile near middle or below, translucent. Seed: 1–50, dark, generally shiny, smooth or finely tubercled, 1–4 mm in size.
18 species: western North America, 16 in flora. (Captain Meriwether Lewis, of Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1774–1809) [Wilson et al. 2005 W N Amer Naturalist 65:345–358] {hort link} Many hybrids, cultivated, including Lewisia ×whiteae Purdy in California; Lewisia columbiana (A. Gray) B.L. Rob. not in California.
Unabridged references: [Colley & Mineo 1985 Pacific Hort 46; Davidson 2000 Lewisias (Portland); Dempster 1996 Madroño 43:415–416; Elliott 1966 Bull Alpine Gard Soc Gr Brit 34:1–76; Foster, Carroll, & Hipkins 1997 Fremontia 25:15–19; Gankin & Hildreth 1968 Four Seasons 2(4):12–14; Heckard & Stebbins 1974 Brittonia 26:305–308; Hershkovitz 1990 Phytologia 68:267–270; Hershkovitz & Hogan 2003 FNANM 4:476–485; Hohn 1975 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of Washington; Mathew 1989 Kew Magazine Monogr; Daubenmire 1975 Syesis 8:9–23]
Unabridged note: Many hybrids, cultivars (Mathew 1989), including Lewisia ×whiteae Purdy in California, as well as Lewisia columbiana (Howell ex A. Gray) B.L. Rob. from Douglas Co., Oregon north to British Columbia; Lewisia maguirei A.H. Holmgren endemic to Nevada; Lewisia sacajaweana B.L. Wilson & E. Rey-Vizgirdas restricted to Idaho; Lewisia tweedyi, endemic to northern Cascades of Washington, British Columbia now placed in Cistanthe.

Key to Lewisia

1. Cauline leaves 3–5, whorled, less often 2, opposite; taproot 0; tuberous root spheric, with many rootlets ..... L. triphylla

1' Cauline leaves 0–many, opposite or alternate; taproot present; tuberous root 0

2. Basal leaves green after flower, not shriveled

3. Basal leaf blades linear to narrowly oblanceolate; leaf margin entire

4. Leaves flat or adaxialy grooved ..... L. ×whiteae

4' Leaves ± cylindric, adaxially not grooved ..... L. leeana

3' Basal leaf blades ovate, oblanceolate, ± spoon-shaped, or obovate to round (± linear); leaf margin entire or toothed

5. Petals 5–9 mm, white to pale pink with darker veins; inflorescence panicle, open

6. Pedicel 0.3–4 mm; petals 6–9 mm ..... L. cantelovii

6' Pedicel 3–8 mm; petals 5–6 mm ..... L. serrata

5' Petals (8)10–20 mm, generally pink-purple with pale and darker stripes, less often white, cream with pink-orange stripes, yellow, or orange; inflorescence cyme, ± umbel, or panicle, ± dense ..... L. cotyledon

7. Leaf margin ± entire; petals (8)12–14 ..... var. cotyledon

7' Leaf margin dentate or wavy; petals 12–20 mm

8. Leaf margin dentate; 225–2200 m ..... var. heckneri

8' Leaf margin ± wavy; 100–400 m ..... var. howellii

2' Basal leaves shriveled after flower, turning brown

9. Flowers sessile; bract, sepal pairs resembling 4-parted calyx

10. Sepal margin entire, not glandular; petals 12–26 mm ..... L. brachycalyx

10' Sepal margin toothed, glandular or not; petals 10–30 mm ..... L. kelloggii

11. Leaf blade > 4.5 cm, > 1 cm wide; petals >= 20 mm ..... subsp. hutchisonii

11' Leaf blade < 4.5 cm, < 1 cm wide; petals <= 20 mm ..... subsp. kelloggii

9' Flowers pedicelled; bract, sepal pairs not resembling 4-parted calyx

12. Flowers breaking apart in fruit; sepals 2–9, scarious, margins entire to ± jagged, not toothed

13. Sepals 2; petals 5–9; proximal bracts 2–4 per node ..... L. disepala

13' Sepals (4)6–9; petals 10–19; proximal bracts 4–7(8) per node ..... L. rediviva

14. Sepals 10–12(15) mm; petals ± 15 mm; stamens 20–30 ..... var. minor

14' Sepals 15–25 mm; petals 18–35 mm; stamens 30–50 ..... var. rediviva

12' Flowers not breaking apart in fruit; sepals 2, not scarious, margins entire, toothed, or gland-toothed

15. Cauline leaves opposite, not markedly smaller than basal ..... L. oppositifolia

15' Cauline leaves 0 or alternate, markedly smaller than basal

16. Basal leaves oblanceolate, spoon-shaped, or obovate; inflorescence 3–100-flowered

17. Cymes panicle-like, 20–100-flowered; petals 6–7, pale pink, base yellow-green; stamens 4–5 ..... L. congdonii

17' Cymes ± umbel-like, 3–11-flowered; petals 7–10, magenta or red, bases white or ± pink; stamens 10–13 ..... L. stebbinsii

16' Basal leaves thread-like to linear to narrow-lanceolate or -oblanceolate; inflorescence < 16-flowered

18. Flowers 2.5–4 cm diam; petals >= 15 mm ..... L. longipetala

18' Flowers 0.5–2 cm diam; petals <= 20 mm

19. Petals 9–20 mm; sepal margins entire to ± jagged, not gland-toothed (obscurely or irregularly toothed), tips ± acute ..... L. nevadensis

19' Petals 4–10 mm; sepal margins ± jagged, toothed, or gland-toothed (entire), tips ± rounded or truncate

20. Bract, sepal glands ± red or dark; stamens 6; stigmas 4 ..... L. glandulosa

20' Bract, sepal glands 0 or pale; stamens 4–8; stigmas 3–6 ..... L. pygmaea


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.