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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

LEWISIA

John M. Miller & Lauramay T. Dempster


Perennial herb generally from short, thick, ± branched taproot; tuberous root generally 0 (or spheric). Stem: prostrate to erect, scape-like or branched. Leaf: generally in basal rosette and cauline, simple, entire or not; base wide; margin generally ± translucent. Inflorescence: ± scapose; cyme, panicle, raceme, or ± umbel; stems 1–many, generally leafless but bracted, disjointing in age or not, 1–many flowered; pedicel 0–30 mm. Flower: sepals 2–8, free, persistent; petals 4–19, white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, rose, purple, overlapped in bud, often with pink or dark purple veins; stamens 1–50; styles 2–8, fused at base, stigmas 2–8, thread-like. Fruit: 6–9 mm, spheric or ovoid, circumscissile near middle or below, translucent. Seed: 1–50, dark, generally shiny, smooth or finely tubercled, 1–4 mm in size.
18 species: western North America, 16 in flora. (Captain Meriwether Lewis, of Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1774–1809) [Wilson et al. 2005 W N Amer Naturalist 65:345–358] {hort link} Many hybrids, cultivated, including Lewisia ×whiteae Purdy in California; Lewisia columbiana (A. Gray) B.L. Rob. not in California.
Unabridged references: [Colley & Mineo 1985 Pacific Hort 46; Davidson 2000 Lewisias (Portland); Dempster 1996 Madroño 43:415–416; Elliott 1966 Bull Alpine Gard Soc Gr Brit 34:1–76; Foster, Carroll, & Hipkins 1997 Fremontia 25:15–19; Gankin & Hildreth 1968 Four Seasons 2(4):12–14; Heckard & Stebbins 1974 Brittonia 26:305–308; Hershkovitz 1990 Phytologia 68:267–270; Hershkovitz & Hogan 2003 FNANM 4:476–485; Hohn 1975 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of Washington; Mathew 1989 Kew Magazine Monogr; Daubenmire 1975 Syesis 8:9–23]
Unabridged note: Many hybrids, cultivars (Mathew 1989), including Lewisia ×whiteae Purdy in California, as well as Lewisia columbiana (Howell ex A. Gray) B.L. Rob. from Douglas Co., Oregon north to British Columbia; Lewisia maguirei A.H. Holmgren endemic to Nevada; Lewisia sacajaweana B.L. Wilson & E. Rey-Vizgirdas restricted to Idaho; Lewisia tweedyi, endemic to northern Cascades of Washington, British Columbia now placed in Cistanthe.

Key to Lewisia

1. Cauline leaves 3–5, whorled, less often 2, opposite; taproot 0; tuberous root spheric, with many rootlets ..... L. triphylla

1' Cauline leaves 0–many, opposite or alternate; taproot present; tuberous root 0

2. Basal leaves green after flower, not shriveled

3. Basal leaf blades linear to narrowly oblanceolate; leaf margin entire

4. Leaves flat or adaxialy grooved ..... L. ×whiteae

4' Leaves ± cylindric, adaxially not grooved ..... L. leeana

3' Basal leaf blades ovate, oblanceolate, ± spoon-shaped, or obovate to round (± linear); leaf margin entire or toothed

5. Petals 5–9 mm, white to pale pink with darker veins; inflorescence panicle, open

6. Pedicel 0.3–4 mm; petals 6–9 mm ..... L. cantelovii

6' Pedicel 3–8 mm; petals 5–6 mm ..... L. serrata

5' Petals (8)10–20 mm, generally pink-purple with pale and darker stripes, less often white, cream with pink-orange stripes, yellow, or orange; inflorescence cyme, ± umbel, or panicle, ± dense ..... L. cotyledon

7. Leaf margin ± entire; petals (8)12–14 ..... var. cotyledon

7' Leaf margin dentate or wavy; petals 12–20 mm

8. Leaf margin dentate; 225–2200 m ..... var. heckneri

8' Leaf margin ± wavy; 100–400 m ..... var. howellii

2' Basal leaves shriveled after flower, turning brown

9. Flowers sessile; bract, sepal pairs resembling 4-parted calyx

10. Sepal margin entire, not glandular; petals 12–26 mm ..... L. brachycalyx

10' Sepal margin toothed, glandular or not; petals 10–30 mm ..... L. kelloggii

11. Leaf blade > 4.5 cm, > 1 cm wide; petals >= 20 mm ..... subsp. hutchisonii

11' Leaf blade < 4.5 cm, < 1 cm wide; petals <= 20 mm ..... subsp. kelloggii

9' Flowers pedicelled; bract, sepal pairs not resembling 4-parted calyx

12. Flowers breaking apart in fruit; sepals 2–9, scarious, margins entire to ± jagged, not toothed

13. Sepals 2; petals 5–9; proximal bracts 2–4 per node ..... L. disepala

13' Sepals (4)6–9; petals 10–19; proximal bracts 4–7(8) per node ..... L. rediviva

14. Sepals 10–12(15) mm; petals ± 15 mm; stamens 20–30 ..... var. minor

14' Sepals 15–25 mm; petals 18–35 mm; stamens 30–50 ..... var. rediviva

12' Flowers not breaking apart in fruit; sepals 2, not scarious, margins entire, toothed, or gland-toothed

15. Cauline leaves opposite, not markedly smaller than basal ..... L. oppositifolia

15' Cauline leaves 0 or alternate, markedly smaller than basal

16. Basal leaves oblanceolate, spoon-shaped, or obovate; inflorescence 3–100-flowered

17. Cymes panicle-like, 20–100-flowered; petals 6–7, pale pink, base yellow-green; stamens 4–5 ..... L. congdonii

17' Cymes ± umbel-like, 3–11-flowered; petals 7–10, magenta or red, bases white or ± pink; stamens 10–13 ..... L. stebbinsii

16' Basal leaves thread-like to linear to narrow-lanceolate or -oblanceolate; inflorescence < 16-flowered

18. Flowers 2.5–4 cm diam; petals >= 15 mm ..... L. longipetala

18' Flowers 0.5–2 cm diam; petals <= 20 mm

19. Petals 9–20 mm; sepal margins entire to ± jagged, not gland-toothed (obscurely or irregularly toothed), tips ± acute ..... L. nevadensis

19' Petals 4–10 mm; sepal margins ± jagged, toothed, or gland-toothed (entire), tips ± rounded or truncate

20. Bract, sepal glands ± red or dark; stamens 6; stigmas 4 ..... L. glandulosa

20' Bract, sepal glands 0 or pale; stamens 4–8; stigmas 3–6 ..... L. pygmaea

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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