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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

CLAYTONIA

John M. Miller & Kenton L. Chambers


Annual, perennial herb, from stolon, rhizome, tuberous root, or taproot, glabrous, ± fleshy. Leaf: entire; basal generally 0–many, rosetted; cauline generally 2, ± opposite, free, ± fused on 1 side, or fused into ± disk. Inflorescence: terminal, raceme, 1-sided; pedicel reflexed, in fruit erect. Flower: petals 5, pink or white; stamens 5; ovary chamber 1, placentas basal, style 1, stigmas 3. Fruit: valves 3, margins inrolling, forcibly expelling seeds. Seed: 3–6, generally black, generally appendaged.
27 species: Central America, North America, eastern Asia, Siberia. (John Clayton, colonial American botanist, 1694–1773) [Miller & Chambers 2006 Syst Bot Monogr 78:1–236]
Unabridged references: [Miller 2003 FNANM 4:465–474; Miller & Chambers 1993 Novon 3:268–273; Miller & Chambers 2006 Systematics of Claytonia Syst Bot Monogr 78:1–236]

Key to Claytonia

1. Perennial herb

2. Plant from thick, taprooted caudex or spheric tuberous root

3. Basal leaves many, from caudex; cauline leaves linear to narrowly oblanceolate; alpine; n&c High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains ..... C. megarhiza

3' Basal leaves 0 to few, from oblong to spheric tuberous root; cauline leaves ± linear to ovate or widely elliptic; montane to alpine; widespread, not include High Sierra Nevada, including Warner Mountains

4. Cauline leaves generally ± sessile, ± linear to ovate ..... C. lanceolata

4' Cauline leaves petioled, widely elliptic ..... C. umbellata

2' Plant from rhizomes, caudex generally 0 or short, taproot 0 or slender

5. Rhizome short, not branched, without bulb-like winter buds; petals ± = to >> sepals ..... C. sibirica (2)

5' Rhizome long, generally branched, often with bulb-like winter buds; petals >> sepals

6. Plant < 15 cm; rhizomes fleshy, pale, bulb-like buds 0; bract 1, below lowest flower; petals ± pink ..... C. nevadensis

6' Plant 15–60 cm; rhizomes slender, often ± brown, bulb-like buds at nodes; bracts 0 or 1 below each flower; petals generally white

7. Bracts 0; basal leaf blade widely ovate, base truncate to cordate, petiole distinct, linear; cauline leaves widely ovate, sessile ..... C. cordifolia

7' Bracts 1 below each flower; basal leaf blade narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, base tapered, petiole ± indistinct, linear; cauline leaves oblanceolate to widely elliptic, sessile or tapered to winged petiole ..... C. palustris

1' Annual (rarely perennial herb in Claytonia rubra subsp. rubra)

8. Bracts 1 per 1–4 flowers; petals 4–12 mm; leaf blades oblanceolate to ovate, if ± linear, some leaf bases bulb-like

9. Flowers generally 1–2 per bract; cauline leaves lanceolate to ovate, free; petals 6–12 mm; stigmas maturing after anthers (cross-pollinated); Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. sibirica (2)

9' Flowers often 2–4 per bract; cauline leaves widely ovate to ± round, free or fused < 5 mm on 1 side; petals 4–5 mm; stigmas maturing ± with anthers (self-pollinated); North Coast ..... C. washingtoniana

8' Bract generally 1, below lowest flower; petals 1–8 mm; leaf blades linear elliptic, oblanceolate, diamond-shaped, deltate, or reniform, leaf bases not bulb-like

10. Seeds dull black, ± tubercled, appendage ± brown, fleshy or shrunken, filling notch or not

11. Basal leaves ± prostrate; plant cushion-shaped, < 6 cm wide, generally not glaucous; cauline leaves ovate, free; petals 5–8 mm, ± pink; seed appendage filling notch ..... C. saxosa

11' Basal leaves decumbent to erect; plant open or tufted, often > 6 cm wide, generally glaucous; cauline leaves linear if free; petals 1–8 mm, pink or white; seed appendage not filling notch

12. Petals 5–8 mm; stigmas maturing after anthers (cross-pollinated); inflorescence 3–30-flowered, long-stalked above cauline leaves ..... C. gypsophiloides

12' Petals 2–5 mm; stigmas maturing ± with anthers (self-pollinated); inflorescence 3–15-flowered, sessile to long-stalked above cauline leaves ..... C. exigua

13. Cauline leaves free or ± fused on 1 side; petals 2–5 mm ..... subsp. exigua

13' Cauline leaves fused into ± disk; petals ± 2 mm ..... subsp. glauca

10' Seeds shiny black, smooth, appendage white, fleshy, filling notch or ± exserted from it

14. Basal leaf blades > 3 × longer than wide, base tapered gradually to petiole; petals 1–6 mm ..... C. parviflora

15. Petals 4–6 mm; stigmas maturing after anthers (cross-pollinated); cauline leaves fused into ± disk (or ± fused on 1 side) — Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area ..... subsp. grandiflora

15' Petals < 4(6) mm; stigmas maturing ± with anthers (self-pollinated); cauline leaves fused into ± disk or free (or ± fused on 1 side)

16. Cauline leaves free (or ± fused on 1 side) ..... subsp. viridis

16' Cauline leaves fused into ± disk

17. Basal leaves linear; vernally moist, often disturbed sites ..... subsp. parviflora

17' Basal leaves elliptic; rock crevices, alluvial fans, boulder fields ..... subsp. utahensis

14' Basal leaf blades < 3 × longer than wide, base cordate to tapered abruptly to petiole; petals generally < 5 mm

18. Basal leaves generally many, prostrate to spreading, smaller inward; cauline fused or ± free on 1 side; petals 2–3.5 mm ..... C. rubra

19. Basal leaves elliptic to obovate, base wedge-shaped; petioles but not whole plant often red ..... subsp. depressa

19' Basal leaves diamond-shaped to deltate, base ± truncate; petioles or whole plant often red ..... subsp. rubra

18' Basal leaves few to many, spreading to erect, ± equal; cauline leaves fused; petals 2–6 mm ..... C. perfoliata

20. Basal leaf tips mucronate; cauline leaf disk angles generally short-pointed ..... subsp. mexicana

20' Basal leaf tips obtuse to acute; cauline leaf disk angles generally 0 or ± obtuse

21. Basal leaves elliptic to round-deltate (diamond-shaped); shrubland, woodland, rock crevices, alluvial fans, boulder fields ..... subsp. intermontana

21' Basal leaf blades elliptic to deltate; vernally moist, often shady or disturbed sites ..... subsp. perfoliata

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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