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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, perennial herb, from stolon, rhizome, tuberous root, or taproot, glabrous, ± fleshy.
Leaf: entire; basal generally 0–many, rosetted; cauline generally 2, ± opposite, free, ± fused on 1 side, or fused into ± disk.
Inflorescence: terminal, raceme, 1-sided; pedicel reflexed, in fruit erect.
Flower: petals 5, pink or white; stamens 5; ovary chamber 1, placentas basal, style 1, stigmas 3.
Fruit: valves 3, margins inrolling, forcibly expelling seeds.
Seed: 3–6, generally black, generally appendaged.
27 species: C.Am, North America, e Asia, Siberia. (John Clayton, colonial Am botanist, 1694–1773) [Miller & Chambers 2006 Syst Bot Monogr 78:1–236]
Unabridged references: [Miller 2003 FNANM 4:465–474; Miller & Chambers 1993 Novon 3:268–273; Miller & Chambers 2006 Systematics of Claytonia Syst Bot Monogr 78:1–236]
2. Plant from thick, taprooted caudex or spheric tuberous root
3. Basal leaves many, from caudex; cauline leaves linear to narrowly oblanceolate; alpine; n&c SNH, Wrn ..... C. megarhiza
3' Basal leaves 0 to few, from oblong to spheric tuberous root; cauline leaves ± linear to ovate or widely elliptic; montane to alpine; widespread, not include SNH, including Wrn
4. Cauline leaves generally ± sessile, ± linear to ovate ..... C. lanceolata
4' Cauline leaves petioled, widely elliptic ..... C. umbellata
2' Plant from rhizomes, caudex generally 0 or short, taproot 0 or slender
5. Rhizome short, not branched, without bulb-like winter buds; petals ± = to >> sepals ..... C. sibirica (2)
5' Rhizome long, generally branched, often with bulb-like winter buds; petals >> sepals
6. Plant < 15 cm; rhizomes fleshy, pale, bulb-like buds 0; bract 1, below lowest flower; petals ± pink ..... C. nevadensis
6' Plant 15–60 cm; rhizomes slender, often ± brown, bulb-like buds at nodes; bracts 0 or 1 below each flower; petals generally white
7. Bracts 0; basal leaf blade widely ovate, base truncate to cordate, petiole distinct, linear; cauline leaves widely ovate, sessile ..... C. cordifolia
7' Bracts 1 below each flower; basal leaf blade narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, base tapered, petiole ± indistinct, linear; cauline leaves oblanceolate to widely elliptic, sessile or tapered to winged petiole ..... C. palustris
1' Annual (rarely per in Claytonia rubra subsp. rubra)
8. Bracts 1 per 1–4 flowers; petals 4–12 mm; leaf blades oblanceolate to ovate, if ± linear, some leaf bases bulb-like
9. Fls generally 1–2 per bract; cauline leaves lanceolate to ovate, free; petals 6–12 mm; stigmas maturing after anthers (cross-pollinated); NW, CaRH, SnFrB ..... C. sibirica (2)
9' Fls often 2–4 per bract; cauline leaves widely ovate to ± round, free or fused < 5 mm on 1 side; petals 4–5 mm; stigmas maturing ± with anthers (self-pollinated); NCo ..... C. washingtoniana
8' Bract generally 1, below lowest flower; petals 1–8 mm; leaf blades linear elliptic, oblanceolate, diamond-shaped, deltate, or reniform, leaf bases not bulb-like
10. Seeds dull black, ± tubercled, appendage ± brown, fleshy or shrunken, filling notch or not
11. Basal leaves ± prostrate; plant cushion-shaped, < 6 cm wide, generally not glaucous; cauline leaves ovate, free; petals 5–8 mm, ± pink; seed appendage filling notch ..... C. saxosa
11' Basal leaves decumbent to erect; plant open or tufted, often > 6 cm wide, generally glaucous; cauline leaves linear if free; petals 1–8 mm, pink or white; seed appendage not filling notch
12. Petals 5–8 mm; stigmas maturing after anthers (cross-pollinated); inflorescence 3–30-flowered, long-stalked above cauline leaves ..... C. gypsophiloides
12' Petals 2–5 mm; stigmas maturing ± with anthers (self-pollinated); inflorescence 3–15-flowered, sessile to long-stalked above cauline leaves ..... C. exigua
13. Cauline leaves free or ± fused on 1 side; petals 2–5 mm ..... subsp. exigua
13' Cauline leaves fused into ± disk; petals ± 2 mm ..... subsp. glauca
10' Seeds shiny black, smooth, appendage white, fleshy, filling notch or ± exserted from it
14. Basal leaf blades > 3 × longer than wide, base tapered gradually to petiole; petals 1–6 mm ..... C. parviflora
15. Petals 4–6 mm; stigmas maturing after anthers (cross-pollinated); cauline leaves fused into ± disk (or ± fused on 1 side) — SNF, Teh ..... subsp. grandiflora
15' Petals < 4(6) mm; stigmas maturing ± with anthers (self-pollinated); cauline leaves fused into ± disk or free (or ± fused on 1 side)
16. Cauline leaves free (or ± fused on 1 side) ..... subsp. viridis
16' Cauline leaves fused into ± disk
17. Basal leaves linear; vernally moist, often disturbed sites ..... subsp. parviflora
17' Basal leaves elliptic; rock crevices, alluvial fans, boulder fields ..... subsp. utahensis
14' Basal leaf blades < 3 × longer than wide, base cordate to tapered abruptly to petiole; petals generally < 5 mm
18. Basal leaves generally many, prostrate to spreading, smaller inward; cauline fused or ± free on 1 side; petals 2–3.5 mm ..... C. rubra
19. Basal leaves elliptic to obovate, base wedge-shaped; petioles but not whole plant often red ..... subsp. depressa
19' Basal leaves diamond-shaped to deltate, base ± truncate; petioles or whole plant often red ..... subsp. rubra
18' Basal leaves few to many, spreading to erect, ± equal; cauline leaves fused; petals 2–6 mm ..... C. perfoliata
20. Basal leaf tips mucronate; cauline leaf disk angles generally short-pointed ..... subsp. mexicana
20' Basal leaf tips obtuse to acute; cauline leaf disk angles generally 0 or ± obtuse
21. Basal leaves elliptic to round-deltate (diamond-shaped); shrubland, woodland, rock crevices, alluvial fans, boulder fields ..... subsp. intermontana
21' Basal leaf blades elliptic to deltate; vernally moist, often shady or disturbed sites ..... subsp. perfoliata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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