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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Leigh A. Johnson

Annual, generally prickly. Stem: prostrate to generally erect; branches ascending or spreading; glabrous to generally hairy, often glandular. Leaf: simple, alternate (lowermost opposite), entire to generally deeply pinnate-lobed. Inflorescence: generally head-like, bracts pinnate- to palmate-toothed or -lobed, spine-tipped (flower 1–2, pedicels elongate, bracts entire, not spine-tipped). Flower: calyx lobes 4–5, equal, entire or toothed, or unequal, spine-tipped; corolla lobes 4–5; stigmas 2 or 3. Fruit: generally ovoid, chambers 1–3; dehiscing when wetted, seeds adherent to fruit and each other, or generally dehiscing at maturity, seeds free. Seed: 1–many per fruit, brown, gelatinous when wet.
± 40 species: western North America, Argentina, Chile. (F.F. Navarrete, Spanish physician, ?–1742) [Porter & Johnson 2000 Aliso 19:55–91] Revised taxonomy, too late for full treatment in TJM2, includes Navarretia linearifolia (Howell) L.A. Johnson subsp. linearifolia, a ± cryptic segregate of Navarretia sinistra, and Navarretia linearifolia subsp. pinnatisecta (H. Mason & A.D. Grant) L.A. Johnson [Navarretia sinistra subsp. pinnatisecta] (Johnson & Cairns-Heath 2010 Syst Bot 35:618–628); Navarretia paradoxinota and Navarretia paradoxiclara, both new to science, and Navarretia propinqua [Navarretia intertexta subsp. propinqua] (Johnson et al. 2013 Phytotaxa 91:27–38). Relative positions of flower parts are as pressed, unless stated otherwise.
Unabridged references: [Porter 1996 Aliso 15:57–77; Spencer & Porter 1997 Syst Bot 22:649–668]

Key to Navarretia

1. Plant not prickly; flowers 1–2 on long pedicels; calyx lobes equal

2. Corolla tube, throat minutely long-stalked-glandular abaxially; upper leaves entire; calyx lobes acuminate

3. Corolla 6–8 mm, lobes blue-white; calyx densely glandular-puberulent; leaves ascending ..... N. capillaris

3' Corolla 8–21 mm, lobes pink; calyx sparsely glandular to subglabrous; leaves spreading ..... N. leptalea

4. Corolla 8–15 mm, throat 2–5 mm, yellow, occasionally with short purple marks ..... subsp. bicolor

4' Corolla 13–21 mm, throat 6–8 mm, purple ..... subsp. leptalea

2' Corolla tube, throat ± glabrous abaxially; upper leaves often palmate-lobed; calyx lobes generally acute

5. Corolla 4–9 mm; branches, pedicels ascending, ± straight; seeds dark brown ..... N. sinistra

5' Corolla 5–20 mm, if < 10 mm, branches generally ascending-spreading, ± straight, pedicels spreading, often curved; seeds medium brown..... N. linearifolia

6. Corolla 5–10 mm, style included ..... subsp. linearifolia

6' Corolla 10–20 mm, style exserted ..... subsp. pinnatisecta

1' Plant prickly, at least when dry; flowers several to many in heads; calyx lobes generally unequal

7. Calyx lobes strap-shaped, wider at base than membranes; bract tip lobes 7–many; fruit dehiscing base upward, not to tip

8. Axis of upper leaves, often bracts expanded above middle; cotyledons 2–3, deeply 2-lobed

9. Corolla lobes white to cream, base purple-spotted

10. Plant erect; corolla lobes rounded-acute; stamens, style included ..... N. gowenii

10' Plant spreading; corolla lobes acuminate; stamens, style exserted ..... N. ojaiensis

9' Corolla lobes blue to purple or light pink, base generally darker, without spots

11. Corolla throat, upper tube purple ..... N. pubescens

11' Corolla throat, tube white

12. Plant spreading to ascending, central stem generally < branches; axis generally white-hairy, bracts glandular-hairy ..... N. mitracarpa

12' Plant erect, central stem generally > branches; axis, bracts puberulent or occasionally mid bract with narrow hairy band ..... N. setiloba

8' Axis of upper leaves, bracts not expanded above middle; cotyledons 2, entire

13. Corolla lobes purple, base spotted; fruit 8-valved ..... N. jepsonii

13' Corolla lobes yellow, cream, or white, base spotted or not, tip occasionally light blue; fruit 4-valved

14. Inflorescence puberulent, with longer hairs or not; corolla throat not spotted, lobes 4; style often long-exserted from flower bud ..... N. cotulifolia

14' Inflorescence white-hairy; corolla throat generally spotted, lobes 4–5; style included in flower bud

15. Corolla white (occasionally lobe tips blue), lobes 4 or 5; fruit 1–2 seeded

16. Corolla 8–12 mm, style exserted ..... N. eriocephala

16' Corolla 6–8 mm, style included ..... N. heterandra

15' Corolla yellow, lobes 5; fruit 2–9 seeded ..... N. nigelliformis

17. Corolla 12–16 mm; herbage dark green ..... subsp. nigelliformis

17' Corolla 9–11 mm; herbage gray green ..... subsp. radians

7' Calyx lobes tapered, narrower at base than membranes; bract tip lobes generally 0–few; fruit dehiscing tip downward (if dehiscing upward, then only when wet)

18. Plant generally not glandular, stem hairs generally recurved or reflexed; fruit translucent, at least below middle, dehiscing when wetted, at base

19. Inner bracts concave-expanded at base; corolla lobes ovate

20. Bract tips with few to several fine spines; corolla lobes with 3 veins entering base; stigmas 3

21. Calyx hairs fine, obscure; calyx lobes entire ..... N. subuligera

21' Calyx coarsely appressed-hairy; calyx lobes toothed ..... N. tagetina

20' Bract tips with 3 spreading, needle-like lobes; corolla lobes with 1 vein entering base; stigmas 2

22. Plant generally mounding, dense, multiple heads in close proximity; corolla 4.5–6.5 mm; filaments 1–2.5 mm, anthers ± equaling corolla lobes ..... N. propinqua

22' Plant erect, open, multiple heads well separated; corolla 6–13.5 mm; filaments 1.5–4.7 mm, anthers exceeded by to exceeding corolla lobes

23. Corolla 6–8(13) mm, anthers exceeding corolla lobes ..... N. intertexta

23' Corolla 6.5–13.5 mm, anthers exceeded by to equaling corolla lobes

24. Corolla 9.5–13.5 mm, pale blue to white, lobes 1.25–2.5 mm wide; n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Calaveras, Tuolumne cos.) ..... N. paradoxiclara

24' Corolla 6.5–9.5 mm, white, lobes 0.5–1.25 mm wide; Inner North Coast Ranges (Lake, Napa, Colusa cos.) ..... N. paradoxinota

19' Inner bracts widely membranous-winged at base, not concave-expanded; corolla lobes linear or narrowly ovate

25. Inflorescence a head (flowers sessile); plant prostrate; calyx tube long-soft-wavy-hairy

26. Corolla 7–9 mm, tube ± exserted; leaves at base of head lobed ..... N. prostrata

26' Corolla 12–21 mm, tube long-exserted; leaves at base of head entire or lobed in proximal 1/2 ..... N. myersii

27. Corolla blue, tube 1–1.2 × calyx; outer bract lobes many ..... subsp. deminuta

27' Corolla white, tube 2–4 × calyx; outer bracts lobes few ..... subsp. myersii

25' Inflorescence a dense cyme, flowers subsessile or short-pedicelled; plant generally not prostrate (except Navarretia leucocephala); calyx tube generally not long-soft-wavy-hairy (except Navarretia fossalis)

28. Calyx lobes hairy; filament <= 1 mm; s California ..... N. fossalis

28' Calyx lobes glabrous or ± hairy; filaments 1–3 mm; n&c California ..... N. leucocephala

29. Stamens attached at corolla throat

30. Corolla 7–9 mm, tube exserted, throat 2–3 mm wide ..... subsp. leucocephala

30' Corolla 4–6 mm, tube included, throat 1–2 mm wide ..... subsp. minima

29' Stamens attached at or just below corolla sinuses

31. Inflorescence 2–20-flowered; outer bracts generally with 3–5 entire or forked lobes ..... subsp. pauciflora

31' Inflorescence 10–60-flowered; outer bracts generally with >= 7 lobes, each 3–4-branched

32. Stem generally elongate, branches ascending; corolla white ..... subsp. bakeri

32' Stem short, branches spreading; corolla blue ..... subsp. plieantha

18' Plant generally glandular, stem nonglandular hairs 0 or not recurved; fruit opaque, dehiscing at maturity, tip to base

33. Leaf, bract axis ± linear (tapered in Navarretia filicaulis); terminal lobe >> to = lobed part of leaf

34. Branches ascending, sparse, along stem; outer bracts pinnate-lobed, lowermost lobes departing above base, or base strongly concave

35. Leaf lobed near base; bract base concave; corolla bright purple ..... N. filicaulis

35' Leaf lobed near, above base; bract base flat; corolla lavender-white or yellow

36. Corolla yellow ..... N. breweri

36' Corolla lavender-white ..... N. peninsularis

34' Branches generally spreading, dense, just below terminal head; outer bracts palmate-lobed at base, not concave

37. Corolla 8–10 mm; stamens, style exserted ..... N. prolifera

38. Corolla lobes yellow ..... subsp. lutea

38' Corolla lobes blue to purple ..... subsp. prolifera

37' Corolla 4–7 mm; stamens, style included ..... N. divaricata

39. Corolla tube white, lobes pink-tipped; longest bract 5–10 mm ..... subsp. divaricata

39' Corolla purple; longest bract 7–20 mm ..... subsp. vividior

33' Leaf (at least upper), bract axis generally wide; terminal lobe < lobed part of leaf

40. Outer bract tip lobes generally 3, ± separated from non-tip lobes

41. Leaf axis 2–6 mm wide, generally >= lobes; upper leaf, bract lobes ascending ..... N. atractyloides

41' Leaf axis generally 1–2 mm wide (wider in Navarretia hamata subsp. parviloba), < lobes; leaf, bract lobes spreading ..... N. hamata

42. Corolla pale blue or lavender; bracts long-hairy, not glandular, 3 lobes at tip ± equal ..... subsp. parviloba

42' Corolla bright pink or purple; bracts gland-dotted or glandular-hairy, 3 lobes at tip generally unequal

43. Corolla tube included, throat wide, lobes ± 0.3 × corolla ..... subsp. hamata

43' Corolla tube exserted, throat narrow, lobes ± 0.25 × corolla ..... subsp. leptantha

40' Outer bract tip lobes 0, non-tip lobes ± adjacent to each other

44. Bract bases not concave, lobes in 2 planes; anthers included; stigma below anthers

45. Corolla lobes 5–7 mm, = calyx, light blue ..... N. mellita

45' Corolla lobes 9–12 mm, > calyx, dark blue ..... N. squarrosa

44' Bract bases concave, lobes 2-ranked; anthers exserted or at mouth of throat, stigma at level of anthers

46. Bract axis strap-shaped, much longer than wide ..... N. viscidula

46' Bract axis widely ovate, not much longer than wide

47. Corolla > calyx, purple; stamens, style exserted ..... N. heterodoxa

47' Corolla = calyx, lavender to white; stamens, style ± at mouth ..... N. rosulata


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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