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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

GILIA

J. Mark Porter


Annual. Stem: decumbent to erect, glabrous, hairy, glandular, or tufted-woolly-hairy. Leaf: simple, 1–3-pinnate-lobed or -dissected, generally alternate, margins entire, toothed, or lobed, tips acute, acuminate, or mucronate; basal generally in rosette; cauline generally reduced. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many in bract axils. Flower: calyx membranous between lobes, membranes splitting or expanding in fruit; corolla > calyx, lobes generally ovate, acute or acuminate. Fruit: spheric to ovoid; chambers 3; valves separating from top, to base and detaching or not to base and staying attached to receptacle. Seed: 3–many, yellow to brown, gelatinous when wet.
± 40 species: western North America, South America. (Filippo L. Gilii, Italian naturalist, 1756–1821) Stamens, styles said to be exserted protrude beyond fused part of corolla, that is, beyond corolla throat. Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Aliciella, Lathrocasis, Linanthus, Navarretia, Saltugilia. Gilia mexicana A.D. Grant & V.E. Grant recently found in San Diego Co.
Unabridged note: Gilia can be challenging to identify. Several small-flowered species are only cryptically different from one another and many traits overlap. In order to successfully use the key, it is important to note pattern and distribution of flower color at the time of collection, as it may fade upon drying. Depauperate specimens may be particularly difficult if not impossible to identify using ordinary means. Descriptions of flowers follows previous authors (Day 1993; Grant & Grant 1956) in subdividing fused part of corolla into tube (basal part with parallel sides) and throat (flared part distal to tube). It is important to note that in some cases these definitions do not refer to homologous parts of the corolla.

Key to Gilia

1. Flowers generally in heads or clusters of > 8

2. Heads hemispheric; corolla throat > tube; stamens exceeded by to reaching corolla lobes ..... G. achilleifolia subsp. achilleifolia

2' Heads spheric; corolla throat <= tube; stamens reaching or exceeding corolla lobes ..... G. capitata

3. Corolla 5–8 mm (7–11 in subsp. tomentosa), lobes linear or narrowly oblong; calyx lobes acute, erect or ± recurved

4. Base of heads tomentose

5. Corolla pale blue-violet to white; heads 12–25 mm wide; n&c Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. mediomontana

5' Corolla bright blue-violet; heads 20–35 mm wide; North Coast, se Inner North Coast Ranges, n Central Coast ..... subsp. tomentosa

4' Base of heads glabrous, glandular, or sparsely tufted-woolly-hairy, but not tomentose

6. Calyx membranes white; corolla lobes < 1 mm wide; seeds generally 1–6 ..... subsp. capitata

6' Calyx membranes blue-violet; corolla lobes 1–2 mm wide; seeds (3)6–25 ..... subsp. pacifica

3' Corolla 7–13 mm, lobes oblong; calyx lobes acuminate, recurved

7. Base of heads glabrous, sparsely tufted-woolly-hairy, not tomentose; pedicels 1–2 mm; especially s California ..... subsp. abrotanifolia

7' Base of heads densely tomentose; pedicels 0; especially n&c California

8. Corolla bright blue-violet; plant with skunk-like odor ..... subsp. chamissonis

8' Corolla pale blue-violet; plant lacking skunk-like odor

9. Inflorescence 10–20 mm wide; corolla lobes ± 2 mm wide ..... subsp. pedemontana

9' Inflorescence 20–30 mm wide; corolla lobes ± 3 mm wide ..... subsp. staminea

1' Flowers not in heads, if clustered at ends of branches then generally <= 8

10. Basal leaves, lower stem with white, sharply bent, acute-tipped hairs ..... G. stellata

10' Basal leaves, lower stem glabrous or hairy, but not with white, sharply bent, acute-tipped hairs

11. Cauline leaves (particularly mid- to upper leaves) clasping or expanded at base

12. Corolla 9–35 mm, 2–7 × calyx

13. Stem tufted-woolly-hairy below middle

14. Corolla 10–20 mm, throat widely tapered (widely V-shaped); fruit ± = calyx ..... G. brecciarum subsp. neglecta (2)

14' Corolla 18–35 mm, throat narrowly tapered; fruit > calyx

15. Corolla tube stout, throat > 7 mm wide, corolla generally 3 × lobes ..... G. latiflora subsp. davyi (2)

15' Corolla tube slender, throat < 7 mm wide, corolla 4–6 × lobes ..... G. latiflora subsp. elongata

13' Stem glabrous, glaucous below middle

16. Pedicels elongate in fruit but not in flower; corolla purple from base to mid-throat or higher ..... G. latiflora subsp. davyi (2)

16' Pedicels elongate in flower; corolla purple from base to base of throat

17. Calyx 2–4 mm; corolla 9–16 mm ..... G. latiflora subsp. cuyamensis

17' Calyx 4–5 mm; corolla 15–22 mm ..... G. latiflora subsp. latiflora

12' Corolla 5–12 mm, 1–2 × calyx

18. Stem below middle glabrous, glaucous; upper leaves generally not deeply toothed

19. Stamens, style reaching corolla lobe middle; pollen blue ..... G. diegensis

19' Stamens, style reaching corolla lobe base; pollen white ..... G. sinuata

18' Stem below middle green, not glaucous, ± to densely tufted-woolly-hairy; upper leaves generally deeply toothed

20. Basal leaves strap-shaped, 1-pinnate-lobed, lobes < leaf axis; corolla throat yellow, midveins occasionally purple ..... G. modocensis

20' Basal leaves not strap-shaped, 2-pinnate-lobed, lobes > leaf axis; corolla throat purple or distally yellow, purple-veined

21. Branches decumbent; throat generally purple ..... G. jacens (2)

21' Branches spreading to ± erect; throat yellow with purple veins ..... G. brecciarum subsp. brecciarum (2)

11' Cauline leaves not clasping or expanded at base

22. Calyx glabrous or hairy, nonglandular

23. Stamens reaching or exceeding corolla lobes

24. Basal leaves densely tufted-woolly-hairy; calyx membranes generally dull purple-spotted (colorless), flat; High Sierra Nevada, w Modoc Plateau, nw East of Sierra Nevada (Mono Co.) ..... G. salticola

24' Basal leaves glabrous or ± tufted-woolly-hairy; calyx membranes bright purple or purple-spotted, inflated-puckered or keeled; s Sierra Nevada, n San Gabriel Mountains, n San Bernardino Mountains, Mojave Desert ..... G. aliquanta

25. Corolla lobes = tube + throat ..... subsp. aliquanta

25' Corolla lobes generally 1/2 tube + throat ..... subsp. breviloba

23' Stamens exceeded by corolla lobes

26. Corolla throat with purple spots

27. Corolla throat funnel-shaped; lobes 3–5 mm wide; style included or ± exserted ..... G. clivorum (2)

27' Corolla throat widely bell-shaped; lobes 5–14 mm wide; style exserted ..... G. tricolor

28. Flower generally in open clusters; pedicel 15–35 mm; corolla 7–13 mm ..... subsp. diffusa (2)

28' Flowers generally in dense clusters; pedicel 1–5 mm; corolla 10–19 mm ..... subsp. tricolor

26' Corolla throat without purple spots

29. Basal leaves glabrous to sparsely short-hairy

30. Corolla tube white, throat, lobes white to lavender; pedicel 1–30 mm ..... G. achilleifolia subsp. multicaulis (2)

30' Corolla tube white, throat yellow, lobes white to lavender; pedicels 2–3 mm ..... G. angelensis

29' Basal leaves tufted-woolly-hairy at least on central veins and in axils

31. Basal leaf lobes spreading; corolla throat yellow or white with 5 yellow spots at base

32. Corolla 4–7 mm; throat yellow-spotted, <= lobes; calyx lobes short-pointed ..... G. clokeyi

32' Corolla 7–12 mm; throat yellow, >= lobes; calyx lobes acuminate ..... G. ophthalmoides

31' Basal leaf lobes generally ascending; corolla throat yellow proximally, blue distally ..... G. ochroleuca

33. Stem glabrous, glaucous below inflorescence

34. Corolla 8–14 mm; style > stamens ..... subsp. bizonata

34' Corolla 4–6 mm; style <= stamens ..... subsp. ochroleuca

33' Stem generally tufted-woolly-hairy or glandular below inflorescence (if glabrous, not glaucous)

35. Lower branches suberect; basal leaves entire to generally 1-pinnate-lobed; corolla tube white, generally purple-streaked, throat yellow proximally, blue distally, lobes blue (entire corolla ± yellow); South Coast, San Gabriel Mountains, s San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, w Desert ..... subsp. exilis

35' Lower branches spreading; basal leaves 2–3-pinnate-lobed; corolla tube purple, throat yellow proximally, deep violet distally, lobes deep violet; Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Gabriel Mountains ..... subsp. vivida

22' Calyx glandular-hairy, occasionally also long-shaggy- or tufted-woolly-hairy

36. Corolla tube purple, throat purple to mid-throat or beyond, or throat with purple spots or stripes distally

37. Leaf dissection ± irregular, lobes not linear; cauline leaf axis wide, terminal lobe wider than lateral; calyx densely fine-black-glandular

38. Stamens, style, stigmas exserted; corolla 9–20 mm, lobes 3–5.7 mm ..... G. brecciarum subsp. neglecta (2)

38' Stamens, style, stigmas included or ± exserted; corolla 5–11 mm, lobes 1.8–3.5 mm

39. Branches spreading to ± erect; throat yellow with purple veins ..... G. brecciarum subsp. brecciarum (2)

39' Branches decumbent; throat generally purple ..... G. jacens (2)

37' Leaf dissection regular, lobes linear; cauline leaf axis narrow, terminal lobe not wider than lateral; calyx not densely fine-black-glandular

40. Corolla throat with 2 purple spots below each lobe

41. Pedicel 10–40 mm; corolla 7–13 mm, throat widely bell-shaped, yellow or orange proximally, lobes 3–6 mm wide; style exserted ..... G. tricolor subsp. diffusa (2)

41' Pedicel 1–10 mm; corolla 6–11 mm, throat funnel-shaped, pale yellow proximally, lobes 3–5 mm wide; style included or ± exserted

42. Stem sparsely tufted-woolly-hairy to long-shaggy-hairy, sparsely but not densely glandular; fruit 3–4.8 mm; calyx 5–6 mm in fruit; corolla 6–8 mm ..... G. clivorum (2)

42' Stem densely glandular; fruit 7–9 mm; calyx 8–11 mm in fruit; corolla 8–11 mm ..... G. millefoliata

40' Corolla throat purple-marked but without 2 spots below each lobe

43. Corolla 11.5–22 mm ..... G. tenuiflora

44. Corolla lobes 2.1–4.2 mm wide; throat 2.2–3.8 mm wide at top

45. Longest stamens ± exserted; stigmas among anthers; fruit 5–6.2 mm ..... subsp. arenaria

45' Longest stamens exserted; stigmas exceeding anthers; fruit 3.5–6 mm ..... subsp. tenuiflora

44' Corolla lobes 4–6 mm wide; throat 3.7–5 mm wide at top

46. Corolla tube + throat 6.7–11 mm; fruit 5–8 mm ..... subsp. amplifaucalis

46' Corolla tube + throat 13–14.5 mm; fruit 6.5–7.5 mm ..... subsp. hoffmannii

43' Corolla 4–11.3 mm

47. Corolla throat purple to above middle, or purple at base and yellow above with purple along veins; flowers 1–2 per bract

48. Basal leaf lobes 0.9–1.5 mm wide; calyx 2.5–4.2 mm, membranes ± keeled; corolla 6–10.7 mm ..... G. malior (2)

48' Basal leaf lobes 0.6–0.9 mm wide; calyx 2–3.2 mm, membranes not keeled; corolla 4–8 mm ..... G. minor (2)

47' Corolla throat yellow, with 1 purple spot at base of lobes; flowers 1–5 per bract

49. Stamens equal in length, reaching corolla throat top ..... G. minor (2)

49' Stamens unequal in length, exserted

50. Calyx 2–2.5 mm; corolla lobes 1.4–2.8 mm ..... G. austro-occidentalis (2)

50' Calyx 2.6–4.6 mm; corolla lobes 1.6–5 mm

51. Fruit oblong-ovoid; corolla lobes 1.6–2 mm ..... G. inconspicua (2)

51' Fruit narrowly ovoid; corolla lobes (2)3–5 mm ..... G. interior (2)

36' Corolla tube purple or white, throat without purple (lavender)

52. Style reaching no farther than corolla lobe middle, stigma when receptive among anthers

53. Basal leaves glabrous, sparsely tufted-woolly-hairy, or long-shaggy-glandular-hairy, but not densely tufted-woolly-hairy

54. Fruit 6–8 mm, narrowly ovoid; Channel Islands ..... G. nevinii

54' Fruit 3–6 mm, ovoid to spheric; mainland

55. Corolla tube white, throat, lobes lavender to white; s Inner North Coast Ranges (Solano Co.), San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges ..... G. achilleifolia subsp. multicaulis (2)

55' Corolla tube purple, throat yellow, lobes lavender to pink; s East of Sierra Nevada, e Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert ..... G. scopulorum

53' Basal leaves densely tufted-woolly-hairy, at least on midvein

56. Longest stamens exceeding corolla lobe middle

57. Leaf lobes ascending; corolla lobes 1.6–2 mm; Great Basin Floristic Province ..... G. inconspicua (2)

57' Leaf lobes spreading; corolla lobes (2)3–5.5 mm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Western Transverse Ranges ..... G. interior (2)

56' Longest stamens exceeded by to reaching corolla lobe middle

58. Branches decumbent; corolla without spots, lobe tips obtuse ..... G. malior (2)

58' Branches spreading to erect; corolla with purple spots below lobes, lobe tips acute

59. Basal leaf lobes 1–6 mm; corolla tube purple; fruit 3–4 mm ..... G. austro-occidentalis (2)

59' Basal leaf lobes 3–11 mm; corolla tube red- or maroon-streaked; fruit 5–6 mm ..... G. transmontana

52' Style exceeding corolla lobes, stigma when receptive above anthers

60. Corolla 7–8.5 mm, white to pale lavender or blue ..... G. yorkii

60' Corolla 9–32 mm, tube, throat, lobes of different colors

61. Longest stamens generally exceeding corolla lobes; corolla throat yellow or white ..... G. leptantha

62. Corolla tube 2–4 × calyx

63. Corolla lobes 1–3 mm wide; San Bernardino Mountains ..... subsp. leptantha

63' Corolla lobes 3–5 mm wide; s Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. purpusii

62' Corolla tube < 2 × calyx

64. Corolla throat obconic; longest stamens exceeding corolla lobes ..... subsp. pinetorum

64' Corolla throat cup-shaped; longest stamens exceeded by corolla lobes ..... subsp. transversa

61' Longest stamens exceeded by corolla lobes; corolla throat blue distally, yellow proximally ..... G. cana

65. Adjacent pedicels spreading, shorter pedicel > 1/2 longer

66. Corolla throat conic, tube 2–4 × calyx ..... subsp. speciformis

66' Corolla throat cup-shaped, tube generally < 2 × calyx ..... subsp. triceps

65' Adjacent pedicels ascending, shorter pedicel < 1/2 longer

67. Fruit narrowly ovoid, generally < 5 mm; basal leaves generally tufted-woolly-hairy-matted ..... subsp. cana

67' Fruit widely ovoid, 5–9 mm; basal leaves tufted-woolly-hairy, not matted

68. Corolla tube = throat; stamens unequal, longest exserted ..... subsp. bernardina

68' Corolla tube 3–6 × throat; stamens equal, ± exserted ..... subsp. speciosa

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