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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally 1-odd-pinnately lobed or compound; lobes or leaflets entire to deeply lobed. Flower: sepals (4)5; petals (4)5, generally > sepals, tips toothed or jagged; stamens 8 or 10; ovary lobes 4–5. Fruit: mericarps 1–5, 2.5–4 mm, obovoid to nearly spheric, smooth, ridged, or tubercled.
7 species: ± coastal western North America. (Greek: marsh flower, from habitat) [Mason 1952 Univ Calif Publ Bot 25:455–512] Plants reported as Limnanthes macounii from Central Coast are variants of Limnanthes douglasii (Meyers et al. 2010 Syst Bot 35:552–558).

Key to Limnanthes

1. Petals curving over fruit in age

2. Petals < to ± > sepals ..... L. floccosa

3. Flower cup-shaped; fruit papillate, generally with widely conic tubercles ..... subsp. californica

3' Flower bell- to urn-shaped; fruit with awl-shaped or plate-like tubercles

4. Sepals glabrous to sparsely hairy; fruit with plate-like tubercles, bristles 0 ..... subsp. bellingeriana

4' Sepals densely hairy; fruit with awl-shaped tubercles, bristles generally present ..... subsp. floccosa

2' Petals > sepals

5. Filaments 2.5–4 mm

6. Petals aging pink; anthers ± 1 mm; Peninsular Ranges ..... L. alba subsp. parishii

6' Petals aging white; anthers 0.5–1 mm; c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... L. montana

5' Filaments 5–6 mm

7. Sepals densely hairy; fruit wide-ridged; s North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley ..... L. alba subsp. alba

7' Sepals glabrous or sparsely hairy; fruit smooth to sharply tubercled; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada ..... L. alba subsp. versicolor

1' Petals generally reflexing in age

8. Leaflets generally entire (lower rarely 2–3-lobed); sepals 5–7 mm

9. Petals 7–9 mm; style 2–3 mm; c Outer North Coast Ranges (near Willits, Mendocino Co.) ..... L. bakeri

9' Petals 12–18 mm; style 4.5–6.5 mm; s North Coast Ranges (s Sonoma Co.) ..... L. vinculans

8' Leaflets entire to 2–3-lobed; sepals 4–17 mm ..... L. douglasii

10. Flower funnel-shaped; petals white, veins generally dark; anthers cream ..... L. douglasii subsp. striata

10' Flower cup- or bell-shaped; petals white to yellow, veins occasionally colored but not dark; anthers cream to yellow, dark pink, orange-red, or ± black

11. Petals yellow, occasionally white-tipped

12. Petals yellow, white-tipped; anthers yellow, cream, or red-brown ..... L. douglasii subsp. douglasii

12' Petals yellow throughout; anthers yellow ..... L. douglasii subsp. sulphurea

11' Petals ± white, without yellow except occasionally when dry

13. Petals veins white or ± purple; anthers cream to yellow; mericarps ± tubercled above or smooth; North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges ..... L. douglasii subsp. nivea

13' Petals veins rose; anthers cream, dark pink, orange-red, or ± black; mericarps ridged; Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley ..... L. douglasii subsp. rosea


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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