|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Shrub, small tree.
Stem: branches alternate, flexible; winter bud scales 0.
Leaf: scattered along branches or clustered on short- shoots, deciduous or not; stipules generally deciduous; petioled; blade veins prominent or not.
Inflorescence: umbel or flowers 1 in axils.
Flower: bisexual; hypanthium 1–3 mm wide, cup-shaped; sepals 5, erect, fleshy, keeled adaxially; petals 5, short-clawed; stamens 5; disk thin, adherent to hypanthium; ovary ± inferior, chambers 2–3, 1–2-ovuled, stigma 2–3-lobed.
Fruit: drupe, 2–3-stoned.
50 species: temperate, w. Med, Eurasia. (Frangible: capable of being broken) [Sawyer & Edwards 2007 Madroño 54:172–174] Often a subg. of Rhamnus; some of value in food, medicine.
Unabridged references: [Bolmgren & Oxelman 2004 Taxon 53:383–390; Wolf 1938 Rancho Santa Ana Bot Gard Monogr 1.]
1. Lvs deciduous, blades thin
2. Fr 3-stoned; leaf blade (50)80–150 mm ..... F. purshiana
3. Lf blade blue- or green-gray, ± glaucous when fresh, papillate, densely hairy or adaxially velvety, light green, abaxially sparsely to densely hairy ..... subsp. ultramafica (2)
3' Lf blade green, not papillate, glabrous to sparsely hairy
4. Lf base tapered; KR, CaR, n&c SN ..... subsp. annonifolia
4' Lf base rounded or cordate; NCo, KR, NCoRO, NCoRH ..... subsp. purshiana
2' Fr 2(3)-stoned; leaf blade 15–80 mm ..... F. rubra
5. Lf blade finely hairy ..... subsp. yosemitana
5' Lf blade glabrous or abaxially puberulent on midrib, veins
6. Twigs gray; leaves clustered on short-shoots ..... subsp. modocensis
6' Twigs red to gray; leaves scattered along stem
7. Lf base, tip rounded ..... subsp. obtusissima
7' Lf base, tip acute ..... subsp. rubra
1' Lvs semi-deciduous or evergreen, blades ± leathery or thin
8. Lvs semi-deciduous, fruit 2–3-stoned
9. Lf blade thin, 20–60 mm, elliptic; fruit 2-stoned ..... F. californica subsp. cuspidata (2)
9' Lf blade ± leathery, 50–100 mm, widely oblong or ovate to obovate; fruit 3-stoned ..... F. purshiana subsp. ultramafica (2)
8' Lvs generally evergreen; fruit generally 2-stoned ..... F. californica
10. Lf blade ± glabrous or abaxially ± puberulent
11. Lf blade dark green adaxially, bright green or yellow abaxially; fruit 2-stoned ..... subsp. californica
11' Lf blade ± yellow-green; fruit 3-stoned ..... subsp. occidentalis
10' Lf blade adaxially glabrous to tomentose, abaxially glabrous to tomentose, velvety, or silvery
12. Lf blade adaxially green, glabrous or minutely puberulent, abaxially glabrous to white-tomentose mixed with long hairs
13. Lf tip abruptly pointed or not, margin dentate to dentate-serrate, long hairs conspicuous abaxially; c&s SN, Teh, TR, nw PR, SnJt, SNE, DMoj ..... subsp. cuspidata (2)
13' Lf tip acute to rounded, margin entire to serrate, long hairs inconspicuous abaxially; DMtns (Clark, New York, Providence mtns) ..... subsp. ursina
12' Lf blade white-tomentose, or adaxially dull green, glabrous, abaxially white-tomentose or velvety to silvery, long hairs 0.
14. Lf blade narrowly elliptic, abaxially velvety to silvery ..... subsp. tomentella (2)
14' Lf blade widely elliptic, abaxially white-tomentose or velvety to silvery
15. Lf blade adaxially white-tomentose, tip obtuse; s KR, NCoRI ..... subsp. crassifolia
15' Lf blade adaxially glabrous (white-tomentose), tip acute; s KR, NCoR, CaRF, SNF, n SNH, ScV, SnFrB, SCoR, SW ..... subsp. tomentella (2)
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.