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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Shrub, small tree. Stem: branches alternate, flexible; winter bud scales 0. Leaf: scattered along branches or clustered on short-shoots, deciduous or not; stipules generally deciduous; petioled; blade veins prominent or not. Inflorescence: umbel or flowers 1 in axils. Flower: bisexual; hypanthium 1–3 mm wide, cup-shaped; sepals 5, erect, fleshy, keeled adaxially; petals 5, short-clawed; stamens 5; disk thin, adherent to hypanthium; ovary ± inferior, chambers 2–3, 1–2-ovuled, stigma 2–3-lobed. Fruit: drupe, 2–3-stoned.
50 species: temperate, w. Med, Eurasia. (Frangible: capable of being broken) [Sawyer & Edwards 2007 Madroño 54:172–174] Often a subg. of Rhamnus; some of value in food, medicine.
Unabridged references: [Bolmgren & Oxelman 2004 Taxon 53:383–390; Wolf 1938 Rancho Santa Ana Bot Gard Monogr 1.]
1. Leaves deciduous, blades thin
2. Fruit 3-stoned; leaf blade (50)80–150 mm ..... F. purshiana
3. Leaf blade blue- or green-gray, ± glaucous when fresh, papillate, densely hairy or adaxially velvety, light green, abaxially sparsely to densely hairy ..... subsp. ultramafica (2)
3' Leaf blade green, not papillate, glabrous to sparsely hairy
4. Leaf base tapered; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. annonifolia
4' Leaf base rounded or cordate; North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges ..... subsp. purshiana
2' Fruit 2(3)-stoned; leaf blade 15–80 mm ..... F. rubra
5. Leaf blade finely hairy ..... subsp. yosemitana
5' Leaf blade glabrous or abaxially puberulent on midrib, veins
6. Twigs gray; leaves clustered on short-shoots ..... subsp. modocensis
6' Twigs red to gray; leaves scattered along stem
7. Leaf base, tip rounded ..... subsp. obtusissima
7' Leaf base, tip acute ..... subsp. rubra
1' Leaves semi-deciduous or evergreen, blades ± leathery or thin
8. Leaves semi-deciduous, fruit 2–3-stoned
9. Leaf blade thin, 20–60 mm, elliptic; fruit 2-stoned ..... F. californica subsp. cuspidata (2)
9' Leaf blade ± leathery, 50–100 mm, widely oblong or ovate to obovate; fruit 3-stoned ..... F. purshiana subsp. ultramafica (2)
8' Leaves generally evergreen; fruit generally 2-stoned ..... F. californica
10. Leaf blade ± glabrous or abaxially ± puberulent
11. Leaf blade dark green adaxially, bright green or yellow abaxially; fruit 2-stoned ..... subsp. californica
11' Leaf blade ± yellow-green; fruit 3-stoned ..... subsp. occidentalis
10' Leaf blade adaxially glabrous to tomentose, abaxially glabrous to tomentose, velvety, or silvery
12. Leaf blade adaxially green, glabrous or minutely puberulent, abaxially glabrous to white-tomentose mixed with long hairs
13. Leaf tip abruptly pointed or not, margin dentate to dentate-serrate, long hairs conspicuous abaxially; c&s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, nw Peninsular Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... subsp. cuspidata (2)
13' Leaf tip acute to rounded, margin entire to serrate, long hairs inconspicuous abaxially; Desert Mountains (Clark, New York, Providence mtns) ..... subsp. ursina
12' Leaf blade white-tomentose, or adaxially dull green, glabrous, abaxially white-tomentose or velvety to silvery, long hairs 0.
14. Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, abaxially velvety to silvery ..... subsp. tomentella (2)
14' Leaf blade widely elliptic, abaxially white-tomentose or velvety to silvery
15. Leaf blade adaxially white-tomentose, tip obtuse; s Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges ..... subsp. crassifolia
15' Leaf blade adaxially glabrous (white-tomentose), tip acute; s Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California ..... subsp. tomentella (2)
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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