Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Polygonum

View taxon page for Polygonum

(For a list of species in Polygonum, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Stem 8–16 ribbed; leaf venation pinnate, abaxialveins obvious; anthers white-yellow (sect. Polygonum)

2. Distal leaves <= distal flowers; inflorescence axillary, terminal

3. Margins of perianth lobes pink (red or white); fruit 1.3–2.3 mm ..... P. argyrocoleon

3' Margins of perianth lobes green-yellow, yellow (white, pink); fruit (2.3)2.5–3.5 mm ..... P. ramosissimum subsp. ramosissimum (2)

2' Distal leaves > to >> distal flowers; inflorescence axillary

4. Fruit smooth to rough

5. Fruit tip beaked, edges strongly concave ..... [P. fowleri subsp. fowleri]

5' Fruit tip not beaked, edges flat

6. Plant ± succulent; leaf red-tinged, blade tips rounded; ocrea funnel-shaped proximally; flowers 1/2-open ..... P. marinense

6' Plant not ± succulent; leaf light-yellow-green to -blue-green, blade tips acute to acuminate; ocrea cylindric proximally; flowers closed ..... P. ramosissimum

7. Stem leaves 1–2.5 × branch leaves, blue-green fresh, dark-brown or black dry; pedicels 1–2 mm ..... subsp. prolificum

7' Stem leaves 2.1–3.5(4.2) × branch leaves, generally yellow-green fresh or dry; pedicels 2.5–6 mm ..... subsp. ramosissimum (2)

4' Fruit striate-tubercled ..... P. aviculare

8. Perianth tube 40–57% of length ..... subsp. depressum

8' Perianth tube (15)20–40% of length

9. Ocreae generally ± persistent distally, especially on upper leaves; perianth 0.9–1.3(1.5) × as long as wide, ± pouched at base ..... [subsp. buxiforme]]

9' Ocreae soon disintegrating distally to fibers or completely; perianth 1.5–2.9 × as long as wide, not pouched at base

10. Leaf blade (6)10–20 mm wide, 2–4.5 × as long as wide; flowers 3–8, ± crowded distally; fruit included or ± exserted ..... subsp. aviculare

10' Leaf blade 0.5–6.8(8) mm wide, (3.4)4.2–15(19) × as long as wide; flowers 1–3(5), not crowded distally; fruit generally exserted

11. Ocrea (3)4–8 mm, distally disintegrating ± completely, veins obscure; lateral veins of leaves visible but not raised adaxially ..... [subsp. neglectum]]

11' Ocrea (6)8–12 mm, distally disintegrating to fibers, veins obvious; lateral veins of leaves raised adaxially ..... [subsp. rurivagum]]

1' Stem ± angled, ribs 0 or obscure; leaf venation parallel, abaxialveins obscure; anthers pink to purple (orange-pink) (sect. Duravia)

12. Perennial herb to shrub

13. Stem erect, wiry; perianth 2.6–3.2 mm ..... P. bolanderi

13' Stem prostrate or ascending, not wiry; perianth (4.5)5–10 mm

14. Ocreae 15–20 mm, distally ± persistent; leaf blade midrib coarsely scabrous to ciliate abaxially; coastal dunes, scrub ..... P. paronychia

14' Ocreae 3–5 mm, distally deciduous; leaf blade midrib glabrous abaxially; mtns ..... P. shastense

12' Annual

15. Ocrea not jointed to leaf

16. Ocreae entire or shallowly dentate distally ..... P. bidwelliae

16' Ocreae disintegrating to fibers distally

17. Stem 4–40 cm; plant with branches 0 or widely spreading ..... P. californicum

17' Stem 1.5–5(8) cm; plant cushion-like

18. Ocreae distally disintegrating to straight fibers; fruit 2–2.5 mm ..... P. hickmanii

18' Ocreae distally disintegrating to curly fibers; fruit 1.2–1.6 mm ..... P. parryi

15' Ocrea jointed to leaf

19. Tips of perianth lobes acute to acuminate; fruit light-yellow or light- or green- to dark-brown, smooth or net-like with longitudinal ridges ..... P. polygaloides

20. Inflorescence bract margin green, if white then scarious border < 0.2 mm wide

21. Fruit lanceolate, 2–2.5 mm; inflorescence bracts lance-elliptic, appressed, rigid; stamens 5–8 ..... subsp. esotericum (2)

21' Fruit ovate, 1.3–1.7 mm; inflorescence bracts linear to lance-linear, ± spreading, not rigid; stamens 3 ..... subsp. kelloggii

20' Inflorescence bract margin white, scarious border (0.2)0.25–1 mm wide

22. Inflorescence ovate to cylindric, generally distal, rarely also continuous from stem bases; fruit 1.3–2.1 mm, lance-ovate to ovate ..... subsp. confertiflorum

22' Inflorescence narrowly cylindric, continuous from stem bases; fruit 2–2.5 mm, lanceolate ..... subsp. esotericum (2)

19' Tips of perianth lobes rounded; fruit black, smooth to minute- and/or striate-tubercled

23. Pedicels reflexed

24. Ocrea 3–5 mm; fruit 2–2.5 mm ..... P. austiniae

24' Ocrea 5–12 mm; fruit 3–5 mm

25. Flower closed; pedicel 2–6 mm; perianth tube 20–28% of perianth length ..... P. douglasii

25' Flower open or half-open; pedicel 0.5–1 mm; perianth tube 9–17% of perianth length ..... P. majus

23' Pedicels erect to spreading

26. Ocrea 1–5 mm, distally entire to dentate-torn; perianth 1.8–2.5 mm; fruit 1.8–2.3 mm ..... P. minimum

26' Ocrea 4–12 mm, distally disintegrating to fibers; perianth (2.5)3–5 mm; fruit 2.5–5 mm

27. Inflorescence dense, flowers crowded distally ..... P. spergulariiforme

27' Inflorescence not dense, flowers not crowded distally ..... P. sawatchense

28. Stem, ocrea papillate-scabrous; leaf blade elliptic to oblong-elliptic, margin papillate-fine-dentate; flowers, or at least some, open ..... subsp. oblivium

28' Stem, ocrea glabrous; leaf blade lance-linear to narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, margin smooth, entire; flowers closed ..... subsp. sawatchense


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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