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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Perennial herb; root thick, carrot-like. Stem: ascending to erect, internodes winged or not, sharp-bristly. Leaf: generally cauline, sharp-bristly; lower petioled; upper short-petioled to sessile; blade lanceolate to ovate, base decurrent or not. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, generally peduncled, coiled. Flower: calyx deep-lobed, bristly, expanded in fruit; corolla bell- to ± urn-shaped, throat expanded above tube, appendages 5, alternate stamens, at same level at anthers, lance-linear to lanceolate [or not], papillate; stamens attached on upper tube; style exserted. Fruit: nutlets 1–4, ovoid; tip ± incurved; scar at base, ± flat with thick, ring-like, minute-toothed rim.
35 species: Eurasia. (Greek: growing together, from putative healing properties) Seeds, herbage TOXIC to humans, livestock from pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Ornamental, folk medicine, cultivated for forage.
Unabridged references: [Gadella 1984 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 71:1061–1067]

Key to Symphytum

1. Stem internodes winged; leaf base decurrent; nutlets black, shiny, smooth ..... [S. officinale]

1' Stem internodes not winged; leaf base generally not decurrent; nutlets brown, dull, fine-grainy ..... S. ×uplandicum


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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