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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

PLAGIOBOTHRYS POPCORNFLOWER
Annual (perennial herb), generally strigose to spreading-hairy; fibrous- to taprooted, staining red dye present or not. Stem: branched at base or above, < 5 dm. Leaf: simple, cauline or basal and cauline, 0.5–10 cm, generally smaller tipward, linear to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: raceme- or spike-like cymes, coiled in bud, generally elongate in fruit; bracts 0–many. Flower: calyx lobes fused below middle, 2–10 mm in fruit; corolla rotate to funnel-shaped or cylindric, white or white with yellow area, tube generally ± yellow inside, limb 1–12 mm diam, appendages prominent to minute, white to yellow. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, ± ovate (triangular to ± lanceolate), rarely on narrow stalk or short peg, variously roughened, abaxially generally with central ridge, lateral ridges, cross-ribs, generally tubercled, occasionally prickly or bristly; adaxially keeled above attachment scar, scar on side generally near middle to base, sometimes on bottom or oblique (on angle between side and bottom), generally raised.
± 65 species: temperate western North America, western South America, northeastern Asia, Australia. (Greek: sideways pit, from position of nutlet attachment scar) Nutlet characters in key generally best for 3 nutlets farthest from stem; yellow on corolla changes to white after pollination.
Unabridged references: [Horn 2000 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ Munich; Johnston 1932 Contr Arnold Arboretum 3:1–102]
Unabridged note: Fully mature nutlets needed for identification; in many species nutlet closest to stem often more firmly attached, larger, differently textured, and with completely different attachment scar than other 3; nutlet characters used in key focus on 3 more loosely attached nutlets. Intergradation common in some species groups; reticulate speciation in genus; sect. Allocarya often treated as separate genus; many species need study. Corolla size can diminish markedly during flower period. Yellow corolla appendages and, if present, contrasting yellow corolla centers, change to white after successful pollination.

Key to Plagiobothrys

1. Nutlet scar on top of ± 0.5 mm angled narrow stalk ..... P. collinus

2. Plant cespitose; stem 0.2–0.8 dm, erect; inflorescence ± among leaves ..... var. ursinus

2' Plant not cespitose; stem 1–4 dm, ± prostrate; inflorescence exceeding leaves

3. Corolla limb 4–8 mm diam; stem hairs generally ± fine, soft ..... var. californicus

3' Corolla limb 1–2 mm diam; stem hairs generally coarse, rough

4. Nutlets 1.5–2 mm; leaf lanceolate, 3–5 mm wide ..... var. fulvescens

4' Nutlets 1–1.5 mm; leaf linear, 2–2.5 mm wide ..... var. gracilis

1' Nutlet scar ± sessile, not on narrow stalk, or on short, ± basal peg

5. Lower cauline leaves alternate, occasionally crowded, occasionally ± opposite, upper alternate; basal rosette present or 0; plant taprooted

6. Nutlet scar long, narrow, elevated along ridge

7. Corolla limb 1–3 mm diam, appendages white, minute; nutlet cobblestone-like, tubercles 0 ..... P. jonesii

7' Corolla limb 4–10 mm diam, appendages yellow, prominent; nutlet irregularly ribbed, tubercled ..... P. kingii

8. Inflorescence coiled in fruit; stems 0.5–1.5 dm, ± equally tall ..... var. harknessii

8' Inflorescence ± elongate in fruit; stems 1–4 dm, central ± taller ..... var. kingii

6' Nutlet scar short, ± round (elliptic), sunken below base of ridge

9. Inflorescence coiled in fruit; nutlet scar generally above middle; basal rosette not persistent in fruit ..... P. hispidus

9' Inflorescence generally elongate in fruit; nutlet scar at or ± below middle; basal rosette generally present in fruit

10. Calyx generally circumscissile, lobes generally curved over fruit; stem, abaxial leaf midveins, margins ± red, staining

11. Bracts 0–few, near base of inflorescence; corolla limb (3)4–9 mm diam; nutlet ± arched ..... P. nothofulvus

11' Bracts few–many, ± throughout inflorescence; corolla limb 2–3 mm diam; nutlet generally arched or folded

12. Nutlets generally 1–2, strongly attached; calyx ± 3 mm, circumscissile in fruit, lobes curved over fruit, dense-spreading-hairy ..... P. arizonicus

12' Nutlets generally (2)3–4, weakly attached; calyx 3–5 mm, generally not circumscissile in fruit, lobes erect to occasionally curved over fruit, ± appressed-hairy ..... P. canescens var. catalinensis (2)

10' Calyx generally not circumscissile, lobes generally erect to ± spreading; stem, abaxial leaf midveins, margins green or ± red, staining or not

13. Nutlet scar deep-concave, pit-like

14. Bracts 0–few, near base of inflorescence; basal rosette persistent; stem, abaxial leaf midveins, green, not staining; calyx hairs brown ..... P. fulvus var. campestris

14' Bracts many, throughout inflorescence; basal rosette short-lived, withered by flowering; stem, abaxial leaf midveins, ± red, staining; calyx hairs tawny to ± white ..... P. infectivus

13' Nutlet scar convex (to shallow-concave)

15. Nutlet interspaces between cross-ribs generally wide, flat ..... P. canescens

16. Lower stem, abaxial leaf midveins ± green, not staining ..... var. canescens

16' Lower stem, abaxial leaf midveins ± red, staining ..... var. catalinensis (2)

15' Nutlet interspaces between cross-ribs generally narrow, groove-like, sometimes obscure

17. Nutlet ± cross-shaped

18. Inflorescence ± not coiled toward tip, not elongate in fruit; calyx 5–7 mm; nutlet 2–3 mm; flowers generally < 10 per branch ..... P. shastensis

18' Inflorescence ± strongly coiled toward tip, elongate in fruit; calyx 3–4(5) mm; nutlet 1–2 mm; flowers generally > 10 per branch ..... P. tenellus

17' Nutlet ± ovate

19. Calyx hairs minutely hooked at tip; nutlet 1–1.3 mm ..... P. uncinatus

19' Calyx hairs not hooked at tip; nutlet 1.5–2.2 mm

20. Nutlet irregularly papillate, tubercled, cross-ribs 0; se San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Hamilton Range) ..... P. verrucosus

20' Nutlet not papillate or regularly papillate, cross-ribs prominent; c&s Sierra Nevada, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Outer South Coast Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains ..... P. torreyi

21. Nutlet abaxially with ± rows of round, translucent papillae, cross-ribs rounded; nutlet strongly arched, base pointed ..... var. perplexans

21' Nutlet abaxially ± without papillae, cross-ribs flat; nutlet ± not arched, base rounded

22. Stem decumbent to ascending; cauline leaves, bracts many, crowded, ovate to elliptic ..... var. diffusus

22' Stem ± erect; cauline leaves, bracts ± few, scattered, ± oblong ..... var. torreyi

5' Lower cauline leaves opposite, upper generally alternate; basal rosette 0; plant fibrous-rooted, becoming taprooted

23. Perennial herb; stem stout; stem, leaf long-soft-spreading-hairy ..... P. mollis

24. Nutlet gray, cross-ribs irregular; se High Cascade Range, ne High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau (except Warner Mountains) ..... var. mollis

24' Nutlet brown, cross-ribs netted; n San Francisco Bay Area (near Petaluma, s Sonoma Co.) ..... var. vestitus

23' Annual; stem slender; stem, leaf hairs not simultaneously long, soft, spreading

25. Flowers generally present near stem base; calyx lobe midvein thickened; stem prostrate

26. Nutlet lance-ovate, dull, attached ± weakly; scar < 20% fruit length, bordered by generally low ridge, funnel-like collar generally 0; lower leaves 3–8 cm ..... P. humistratus

26' Nutlet wide-ovate to deltate, shiny, attached strongly; scar 20–35% fruit length, generally bordered by funnel-like collar; lower leaves 1–2 cm ..... P. scriptus

25' Flowers generally 0 near stem base; calyx lobe midvein occasionally thickened; stem prostrate to erect

27. Nutlet scar 25–60% fruit length, ± deep-concave

28. Nutlet abaxially with large prickles, barb-tipped or not, or rarely ± 0

29. Nutlet abaxial cross-ribs prominent, creating irregular net-like pattern ..... P. acanthocarpus

29' Nutlet abaxial cross-ribs 0 to obscure, net-like pattern 0

30. Nutlet shiny; prickles few, on ridges abaxially ..... P. austiniae

30' Nutlet ± dull; prickles many, throughout abaxially

31. Nutlet 1.5–3 mm, prickles long, slender, not conic, ± barb-tipped, ± 0 adaxially; scar triangular ..... P. greenei

31' Nutlet 1–1.5 mm, prickles short, stout, conic, blunt-tipped, present adaxially; scar narrow-triangular ..... P. hystriculus

28' Nutlet abaxially generally without large prickles, without barb-tipped projections (minute-bristled)

32. Nutlet scar generally linear, wider near base or not; stem, leaves ± glabrous ..... P. strictus

32' Nutlet scar ± pear-shaped or ± triangular; stem, leaves strigose

33. Nutlet scar < 25% fruit length, concave, flanked by indistinct granular roughness ..... P. trachycarpus (2)

33' Nutlet scar 40–60% fruit length, pit-like, flanked by prominent, crowded wrinkles

34. Calyx lobes ± not longer in fruit; stem prostrate to decumbent; lower leaves 0.5–2.5 cm; corolla limb 1–1.5 mm diam, appendages white; nutlet ± 1 mm, cross-ribs wide, crowded, scar ± pear-shaped ..... P. distantiflorus

34' Calyx lobes longer in fruit; stem ascending to erect; lower leaves 4–8 cm; corolla limb > 2 mm diam, appendages yellow; nutlet 1.5–2 mm, cross-ribs narrow, not crowded, scar ± triangular ..... P. glyptocarpus

35. Corolla limb 5–9 mm diam ..... var. glyptocarpus

35' Corolla limb 2–3 mm diam ..... var. modestus

27' Nutlet scar < 20% fruit length, generally ± flat or ± concave (deep-concave in Plagiobothrys diffusus)

36. Nutlet scar basal, generally on short peg; calyx lobe midvein ± stout

37. Stem prostrate to decumbent; calyx lobes generally bent, ± same direction, generally upward; nutlet lanceolate ..... P. leptocladus

37' Stem ascending to erect; calyx lobes ± bent or straight, erect to ± spreading; nutlet lance-ovate

38. Calyx base fleshy, lobes oblong to spoon-shaped; pedicel thick, hollow; nutlet adaxially fine- to obscure-granular to smooth, margins with conspicuous, entire border ..... P. glaber

38' Calyx base not fleshy, lobes linear to lanceolate; pedicel slender, generally solid; nutlet adaxially coarse-grainy, margins with obscure, not entire border ..... P. stipitatus

39. Corolla limb 2–4 mm diam ..... var. micranthus

39' Corolla limb 5–12 mm diam ..... var. stipitatus

36' Nutlet scar near base or oblique, not on short peg; calyx lobe midvein generally slender

40. Nutlet scar ± linear, slit- or ridge-like

41. Nutlet ± not tubercled, shiny, 1.8–2.5 mm, abaxial cross-ribs 0; corolla limb 2–4 mm diam ..... P. lithocaryus

41' Nutlet ± tubercled, dull, 0.8–2 mm, abaxial cross-ribs few–many; corolla limb generally <= 2 mm or > 5 mm diam

42. Corolla limb 1.5–2 mm diam; pedicel generally 0–1 mm; nutlet abaxially generally ± flat, interspaces narrower than or as wide as cross-ribs ..... P. undulatus

42' Corolla limb 5–10 mm diam; pedicel generally 2–15(30) mm; nutlet abaxially convex, interspaces wider than cross-ribs ..... P. chorisianus

43. Leaves of lower pair generally fused at base, ± sheathing stem; stem erect to decumbent, branched from upper axils; corolla limb 6–10 mm diam; pedicels generally > calyx ..... var. chorisianus

43' Leaves of lower pair generally ± not fused at base, not or ± sheathing stem; stem prostrate, branched from lower axils; corolla limb 5–7 mm diam; pedicels generally < calyx ..... var. hickmanii

40' Nutlet scar oblong to triangular or elliptic to ovate, not slit- or ridge-like

44. Stem hairs spreading

45. Bracts few, near inflorescence base; pedicels 1–3+ mm, slender; calyx ± deciduous; nutlet cross-ribs prominent, scar near base, ± oblong to occasionally narrow-triangular, generally sunken in groove ..... P. parishii

45' Bracts ± many, throughout inflorescence; pedicels 0–1 mm, stout; calyx persistent; nutlet cross-ribs low, scar generally oblique, ± ovate, not sunken in groove ..... P. salsus

44' Stem hairs appressed

46. Nutlet scar generally oblique at base

47. Nutlet adaxial ridge, or at least lower part, sunken in groove ..... P. reticulatus

48. Nutlet ± ovate; adaxial ridge in wide, well-defined groove; trough around scar generally wide, distinct; abaxial cross-ribs generally irregularly net-like, interspace tubercles generally sparse or small ..... var. reticulatus

48' Nutlet ± oblong-ovate; adaxial ridge in narrow, poorly defined groove; trough around scar generally narrow, ± obscure; abaxial cross-ribs ± few, prominent, scattered, irregular, interspace tubercles generally dense or large ..... var. rossianorum

47' Nutlet adaxial ridge not sunken

49. Bracts 0–few, near inflorescence base; calyx base ± 4- ridged in fruit; corolla limb 3–9 mm diam ..... P. tener var. tener (2)

49' Bracts many, ± throughout inflorescence (except bracts below inflorescence middle in Plagiobothrys bracteatus); calyx base not ridged in fruit; corolla limb 1–3 mm diam

50. Nutlet wide-ovate, ± symmetric ..... P. bracteatus

50' Nutlet ± oblong-ovate, asymmetric ..... P. cognatus

46' Nutlet scar generally above base

51. Nutlet scar narrow-elliptic to obovate; corolla limb 1–2 mm diam

52. Nutlet plump, ± symmetric, sharp-roughened, often also minute-bristled or scabrous, dull; adaxial ridge at ± middle, generally not folded over to 1 side ..... P. hispidulus

52' Nutlet ± flat, asymmetric, smooth to rounded-roughened, rarely bristled or scabrous, shiny; adaxial ridge beyond middle, ± folded over to 1 side below

53. Nutlet wrinkled, tubercled; s Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, sw Sacramento Valley, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... P. cusickii

53' Nutlet not wrinkled, not tubercled; East of Sierra Nevada (Deep Springs Lake, ne Inyo Co.) ..... P. nitens

51' Nutlet scar ± ovate to triangular; corolla limb 1.5–9 mm diam

54. Bracts many, ± throughout inflorescence; calyx base not ridged in fruit; corolla limb 1.5–5 mm diam

55. Nutlet scar, adjacent ridge in deep trough ..... P. diffusus

55' Nutlet scar, adjacent ridge not in trough ..... P. trachycarpus (2)

54' Bracts 0–few, near base of inflorescence; calyx base ± 4-ridged in fruit; corolla limb 3–9 mm diam ..... P. tener

56. Plant fleshy; stem, leaf ± glabrous, glaucous; calyx appressed to stem, lobes erect in fruit; generally on serpentine; Inner North Coast Ranges (Lake, n Napa cos.) ..... var. subglaber

56' Plant not fleshy; stem, leaf sparse-hairy, not glaucous; calyx ± spreading from stem, lobes ascending to ± spreading in fruit; generally not serpentine; North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, w Modoc Plateau ..... var. tener (2)

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