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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to perennial herb [ tree].
Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0.
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts.
Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted ( pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused ( anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched.
Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]
1. Fl radial; filaments not fused (subfamily Campanuloideae)
3. Fls generally 2–4+ per node; corolla cut >= 3/4 to base, lobes linear ..... ASYNEUMA
3' Fls generally 1 per node; corolla cut 1/4–2/3 to base, lobes narrow- to wide-triangular ..... CAMPANULA (2)
4. Fls in axils of leaf-like bracts, sessile
5. Corolla 3–5 mm, cylindric; sepals widely triangular, leaf-like ..... HETEROCODON
5' Corolla 5–10 mm, rotate; sepals narrowly triangular, not leaf-like ..... TRIODANIS
4' Fls terminal, subtended, but generally not immediately so, by 1–several, generally non-leaf-like bracts, sessile or not
6. Fr open by lateral pores ..... CAMPANULA (2)
6' Fr open at top irregularly by tears where style falls off, within persistent sepals ..... GITHOPSIS
1' Fl bilateral; filaments, anthers fused into tube or filaments fused into tube above middle, anthers free
7. Filaments free at base, fused above middle, anthers free; plants of dry areas (subfamily Nemacladoideae) ..... NEMACLADUS
7' Filaments, anthers fused; plants of wet areas (subfamily Lobelioideae)
8. Fr open on sides by slits or irregular tears
9. Pedicels 0; ovary long, narrow, ± pedicel-like; leaf lanceolate to awl-like ..... DOWNINGIA
9' Pedicels 1–4(8) mm; ovary ellipsoid, not pedicel-like; leaf linear ..... HOWELLIA
8' Fr open at top, within sepals, by valves
10. Fr spheric; plant biennial, perennial herb ..... LOBELIA
10' Fr narrowly obconic or cylindric; plant annual
11. Corolla blue, abaxial lip with 2 low, yellow ridges; fruit narrowly obconic to cylindric ..... PORTERELLA
11' Corolla white or 0, abaxial lip without ridges; fruit cylindric ..... LEGENERE
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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