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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae

1. Flower radial; filaments not fused (subfamily Campanuloideae)

2. Perennial herb

3. Flowers generally 2–4+ per node; corolla cut >= 3/4 to base, lobes linear ..... ASYNEUMA

3' Flowers generally 1 per node; corolla cut 1/4–2/3 to base, lobes narrow- to wide-triangular ..... CAMPANULA (2)

2' Annual

4. Flowers in axils of leaf-like bracts, sessile

5. Corolla 3–5 mm, cylindric; sepals widely triangular, leaf-like ..... HETEROCODON

5' Corolla 5–10 mm, rotate; sepals narrowly triangular, not leaf-like ..... TRIODANIS

4' Flowers terminal, subtended, but generally not immediately so, by 1–several, generally non-leaf-like bracts, sessile or not

6. Fruit open by lateral pores ..... CAMPANULA (2)

6' Fruit open at top irregularly by tears where style falls off, within persistent sepals ..... GITHOPSIS

1' Flower bilateral; filaments, anthers fused into tube or filaments fused into tube above middle, anthers free

7. Filaments free at base, fused above middle, anthers free; plants of dry areas (subfamily Nemacladoideae) ..... NEMACLADUS

7' Filaments, anthers fused; plants of wet areas (subfamily Lobelioideae)

8. Fruit open on sides by slits or irregular tears

9. Pedicels 0; ovary long, narrow, ± pedicel-like; leaf lanceolate to awl-like ..... DOWNINGIA

9' Pedicels 1–4(8) mm; ovary ellipsoid, not pedicel-like; leaf linear ..... HOWELLIA

8' Fruit open at top, within sepals, by valves

10. Fruit spheric; plant biennial, perennial herb ..... LOBELIA

10' Fruit narrowly obconic or cylindric; plant annual

11. Corolla blue, abaxial lip with 2 low, yellow ridges; fruit narrowly obconic to cylindric ..... PORTERELLA

11' Corolla white or 0, abaxial lip without ridges; fruit cylindric ..... LEGENERE


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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