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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

DEINANDRA TARWEED, TARPLANT

Bruce G. Baldwin


Annual [perennial herb] or subshrub to shrub, 4–120(150) cm, generally aromatic. Stem: generally ± erect, generally ± solid. Leaf: proximal in basal rosette or opposite (generally not persistent), most alternate, sessile, linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, proximal generally pinnately lobed to serrate, distal generally entire, hairy, often glandular. Inflorescence: heads radiate, generally in flat-topped or ± panicle-like clusters or in tight groups; involucre bell- or urn-shaped, hemispheric, or ± obconic, 2–13+ mm diam; phyllaries 3–35 in 1 series, ± linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, each generally 1/2 enclosing a ray ovary, falling with fruit, ± hairy and sessile- or stalked-glandular; receptacle flat to convex, glabrous or minutely bristly; paleae in 1 series between ray and disk flowers in annual or in 2–3+ series or subtending all or most disk flowers in shrubs, fused or free, phyllary-like, more scarious. Ray flower: 3–35; corolla deep or pale yellow. Disk flower: 3–70, generally staminate, sometimes bisexual; corolla yellow, tube <= throat, lobes deltate; anthers generally ± red to dark purple or yellow to brown, tips lance-ovate to deltate; style glabrous proximal to branches, tips awl-shaped, densely bristly. Fruit: ray nearly round in ×-section (except ± flattened adaxially) or ± 3-angled (abaxially generally ± widely 2-faced, adaxially ± flattened to slightly bulging), generally ± arched, glabrous, tip ± beaked, beak offset adaxially, ascending, pappus 0; disk fruit generally 0, disk pappus generally of 1–15 generally linear to lanceolate, entire or fringed to deeply cut scales, sometimes 0 or crown-like.
21 species: California, western Arizona, northern Baja California. (Greek: fierce man, probably for name it replaced, Hartmannia DC., meaning "stag man," stags being fiercely territorial) [Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:280–286; Baldwin 2007 Amer J Bot 94:237–248] Self-sterile except Deinandra arida and Deinandra mohavensis.
Unabridged disk flower: anther bases cordate-sagittate to sagittate.
Unabridged references: [Carlquist et al. 2003 Tarweeds and silverswords: evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae)]

Key to Deinandra

1. Subshrub or shrub; paleae in 2 or 3+ series or subtending all or most disk flowers

2. Ray flowers (11)13(20); anthers ± red to dark purple; paleae in 2 series (1 between ray and disk flowers, 1 between outermost and adjacent disk flowers) ..... D. clementina

2' Ray flowers (4)8; anthers yellow or ± brown; paleae in 3+ series or throughout receptacle ..... D. minthornii

1' Annual; paleae in 1 series, between ray and disk flowers

3. Ray flowers 3–5; disk flowers 3–6; pappus of (4)5–12 scales

4. Ray flowers 3(4); disk flowers 3(4) ..... D. lobbii

4' Ray flowers 5; disk flowers 6

5. Phyllaries generally sessile-glandular, at least near margins, rarely stalked-glandular, stalks < glands; anthers ± red to dark purple

6. Phyllaries glandular near margins, sometimes also with slender-based glandless hairs; bracts subtending head generally overlapping at least proximal 1/2 of involucre ..... D. fasciculata

6' Phyllaries ± evenly glandular and with swollen-based glandless hairs, at least on midribs; bracts subtending head generally overlapping proximal 1/2 or less of involucre ..... D. pentactis

5' Phyllaries stalked-glandular, stalks generally >= glands; anthers yellow or ± brown (± red to dark purple or maroon).

7. Proximal leaves generally pinnately lobed to toothed (entire); heads in open, panicle-like clusters; pappus of linear to oblong, entire or fringed scales ..... D. kelloggii

7' Proximal leaves generally entire, sometimes serrate; heads generally ± sessile in tight groups; pappus of irregular, awl-shaped to square, deeply cut scales ..... D. mohavensis

3' Ray flowers (4)8–35; disk flowers 8–70; pappus 0, or of 1–14 scales, or crown-like

8. Anthers yellow or ± brown

9. Disk pappus generally 0, rarely of 1–5, linear to bristle-like scales 0.1–0.6 mm or rudimentary; faces of proximal leaves glabrous or hairy and stalked-glandular; disk flowers 17–60

10. Proximal leaves hairy and stalked-glandular; stem solid; disk flowers 17–25 ..... D. arida

10' Proximal leaves glabrous, margins and midribs sometimes scabrous or bristly; stem hollow; disk flowers 28–60 ..... D. halliana

9' Disk pappus generally of 4–13 scales, sometimes crown-like, rarely 0; faces of proximal leaves ± hairy and stalked-glandular; disk flowers 10–21

11. Ray deep yellow, 2–4 mm ..... D. bacigalupii

11' Ray pale yellow, 6–12 mm ..... D. pallida

8' Anthers ± red to dark purple

12. Disk flowers all or mostly bisexual — pappus scales often maroon or maroon-flecked ..... D. floribunda

12' Disk flowers all or mostly staminate

13. Ray flowers 15–35; pappus 0 or crown-like, with irregular scales < 1 mm ..... D. corymbosa

13' Ray flowers (7)8–13; pappus of 4–14, generally oblong or linear to lanceolate scales 0.5–2 mm.

14. Phyllaries unevenly sessile- and stalked-glandular, glands highly variable in size; phyllary body 3–7+ striate; pappus scales 0.5–1 mm, << 1/2 corolla length ..... D. conjugens

14' Phyllaries ± evenly stalked-glandular, glands generally ± uniform in size; phyllary body not striate; pappus scales 1–2 mm, often >= 1/2 corolla length

15. Disk flowers 8–14(15); ray flowers (7)8(10), rays 3–7.5 mm; phyllaries 5–6 mm, < peduncle — basal leaves sometimes persistent in South Coast Ranges ..... D. paniculata

15' Disk flowers (11)13–32; ray flowers 8–13(15), rays 5–9.5 mm; phyllaries 5–8.5 mm, < or > peduncle ..... D. increscens

16. Plants <= 10 dm; heads in panicle-like clusters; peduncle generally > involucre, peduncle bracts generally overlapping < proximal 3/4 of phyllaries; ray flowers 8–13 ..... subsp. increscens

16' Plants generally <= 4.5 dm; heads in pairs or tight groups; peduncle generally < involucre, peduncle bracts generally overlapping >= proximal 3/4 of phyllaries; ray flowers (8)13(15) ..... subsp. villosa

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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