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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to shrub [ tree].
Stem: nodes swollen or not.
Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not.
Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts (" inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts (" involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets.
Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens 3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3.
Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially n temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
1. Ocreae present, persistent or not; nodes generally swollen; flower cluster not subtended by involucre; pedicels all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets (Polygonoideae)
2. Perianth parts (5)6 (Rumiceae)
3. Fls unisexual, outer perianth parts of pistillate flower spine-tipped in fruit ..... EMEX
3' Fls generally bisexual, outer perianth parts not spine-tipped in fruit ..... RUMEX
2' Perianth parts 4–5
4. Perianth parts 4; fruit elliptic, 2-winged; leaves ± basal ..... OXYRIA
4' Perianth parts 4–5; fruit generally ovoid; leaves generally cauline
5. Vine-like shrub; perianth in fruit fleshy (Coccolobeae) ..... MUEHLENBECKIA
5' Herb, or if shrub then not vine-like; perianth in fruit generally not fleshy (Polygoneae)
6. Outer perianth parts winged or keeled, or ± so
7. Fl base stalk-like; outer perianth parts winged (keeled in Fallopia convolvulus); leaf blade sagittate or cordate; ocrea papery, not 2-lobed distally ..... FALLOPIA
7' Fl base not stalk-like; outer perianth parts keeled; leaf blade not sagittate or cordate; ocrea generally translucent, 2-lobed distally ..... POLYGONUM (2)
6' Outer perianth parts not winged or keeled
8. Lvs generally basal; inflorescence terminal, spike-like; stems not branched ..... BISTORTA
8' Lvs cauline; inflorescence terminal, axillary, spike-like or not; stems generally branched
9. Ocreae generally translucent, glabrous, 2-lobed, fibrous in age ..... POLYGONUM (2)
9' Ocreae opaque, glabrous to scabrous, not 2-lobed
10. Infl raceme- or panicle-like; perianth parts fused ± 1/4; stamens 8 ..... ACONOGONON
10' Infl ± head-, spike-, or panicle-like; perianth parts fused 1/4–2/3; stamens 5–8 ..... PERSICARIA
1' Ocreae 0; nodes not swollen; flower clusters subtended by involucre of 1+ free or fused bracts (or not, in Gilmania); pedicels each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets (Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae)
11. Involucre bract 1, inflated, awns 0; leaves generally lobed; stamens 6 (Pterostegiinae) ..... PTEROSTEGIA
11' Involucre 0 or tubular or of 2–5 ± free bracts, not inflated, awned or not; leaves entire; stamens 3–9 (Eriogoninae)
12. Annual to shrub, if annual then involucre tubular, awnless
13. Involucres of 2–5 awnless bracts ..... DEDECKERA
13' Involucres tubular ..... ERIOGONUM
12' Annual; involucres tubular and awned or of free or basally fused bracts, awned or not, 0 in Gilmania
14. Lvs basal and cauline, opposite ..... GOODMANIA
14' Lvs basal or if cauline then alternate or whorled
15. Involucre 0 ..... GILMANIA
15' Involucre present
16. Involucres of free or basally fused bracts
17. Stamens 3
18. Perianth lobes leathery; involucre bracts 3, awned ..... LASTARRIAEA
18' Perianth lobes petal-like; involucre bracts many, awnless ..... NEMACAULIS
17' Stamens 6 or 9
19. Involucre bracts 3(4), awned; plant tomentose ..... HOLLISTERIA
19' Involucre bracts 4–7, awnless; plant silky-puberulent ..... JOHANNESHOWELLIA
16' Involucres tubular
20. Involucre funnel- to bell-shaped, not angled, not ridged
21. Involucre awns 5(6); perianth lobes 3-lobed to fringed ..... SIDOTHECA
21' Involucre awns (3)4(5) or 7–36; perianth lobes generally entire
22. Involucre awns 4(5) or generally 7–30(36) ..... ACANTHOSCYPHUS
22' Involucre awns (3)4 ..... OXYTHECA
20' Involucre generally ± cylindric, angled or not, ridged or not
23. Bracts generally 2, opposite, or many, whorled; flowers 1(2) ..... CHORIZANTHE
23' Bracts 3, alternate, on 1 side of branch or not; flowers (1)2–6
24. Involucre teeth 5, awns at tips; flowers 4(6) ..... ARISTOCAPSA
24' Involucre teeth 2–4 or 6, if 5 then awns both at base of involucre and at tips of teeth; flowers (1)2–3
25. Involucre not awned basally
26. Fl hairy; bracts below involucre obvious; involucre teeth unequal ..... MUCRONEA
26' Fl glabrous, bumpy; bracts below involucre obscure; involucre teeth equal ..... SYSTENOTHECA
25' Involucre awned basally
27. Involucre 3-angled, basal awns 3, terminal (on teeth) 5; flowers 2 ..... CENTROSTEGIA
27' Involucre 6-angled, basal awns 6, terminal (on teeth) 6; flowers 3 ..... DODECAHEMA
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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