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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

BRASSICACEAE (Cruciferae) MUSTARD FAMILY

Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted


Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1–many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
± 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006 Plant Syst Evol 259:89–120] Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central North Coast Ranges, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in South Coast, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in Peninsular Ranges, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Brassicaceae

Key to Groups Based Primarily on Flowering Material

1. Hairs simple or 0

2. Cauline leaves 0 or at least some basally lobed to clasping ..... Group 1

2' Cauline leaves always present, not basally lobed or clasping ..... Group 2

1' At least some hairs branched

3. Ovary, young fruit linear ..... Group 3

3' Ovary, young fruit variously shaped, not linear ..... Group 4

Group 1:

1. Plant scapose; cauline leaves 0

2. All or at least early flowers 1 from basal rosette ..... IDAHOA

2' All flowers in racemes

3. Flowers yellow ..... DIPLOTAXIS

3' Flowers white, lavender, or purple

4. Perennial herb; petals 4–5.5(7) mm ..... CARDAMINE

4' Annual; petals 1.2–1.5 mm ..... SUBULARIA

1' Plant not scapose; cauline leaves present

5. Cauline leaves petioled; plant aquatic, rooting from proximal nodes ..... NASTURTIUM

5' Cauline leaves sessile; plant terrestrial, not rooting from proximal nodes

6. Stamens 2 ..... LEPIDIUM (2)

6' Stamens 6(4)

7. All stamens well exserted beyond petals; ovary stalk above receptacle distinct in flower

8. Sepals spreading to reflexed; petals yellow to white, 1.3–2 cm ..... STANLEYA

8' Sepals generally ± erect; petals purple, lavender, or white, 0.6–1.2(1.6) cm ..... THELYPODIUM (2)

7' At least some stamens included; ovary stalk above receptacle 0 in flower

9. Stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length; petals crinkled or channeled

10. Fruit cylindric; seed wings 0 ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

10' Fruit flattened; seeds generally winged ..... STREPTANTHUS

9' Stamens 4 long, 2 short; petals generally not crinkled, not channeled

11. Ovary, young fruit with 1–2(4) ovules or seeds

12. Young fruit not reflexed ..... LEPIDIUM (2)

12' Young fruit reflexed

13. Petals yellow ..... ISATIS

13' Petals white or ± purple-tinged ..... THYSANOCARPUS

11' Ovary, young fruit with (4)6–300 ovules or seeds

14. Petals yellow

15. Young fruit reflexed ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

15' Young fruit spreading to erect

16. Petals (6)8–30 mm, clawed ..... BRASSICA (2)

16' Petals 0.5–9(12) mm (or 0), clawed or not, narrowed to base

17. Cauline leaves cordate-clasping ..... CONRINGIA

17' Cauline leaves basally lobed

18. Ovary, young fruit linear; stem angular distally ..... BARBAREA

18' Ovary, young fruit spheric to ovoid or oblong; stem generally not angular distally ..... RORIPPA

14' Petals white, lavender, pink, purple, or violet

19. Ovary, young fruit ovate, round, or cordate

20. Perennial herb; seeds smooth ..... NOCCAEA

20' Annual; seeds striate ..... THLASPI

19' Ovary, young fruit linear

21. Petals not clawed, gradually narrowed to base ..... BOECHERA

21' Petals clawed

22. Petals 15–30 mm ..... BRASSICA (2)

22' Petal 4.5–12(15)

23. Young fruit reflexed ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

23' Young fruit erect to spreading ..... THELYPODIUM (2)

Group 2:

1. Flowers bilateral

2. Ovary, young fruit linear; ovules or seeds many ..... STREPTANTHUS (2)

2' Ovary, young fruit ovate to obcordate; ovules or seeds 2 ..... [IBERIS]

1' Flowers radial

3. Stamens 2 or 4

4. Ovary linear ..... CARDAMINE (4)

4' Ovary broader, not linear

5. Ovary, young fruit with 10–24 ovules or seeds ..... HORNUNGIA

5' Ovary, young fruit with 2–4 ovules or seeds ..... LEPIDIUM (2)

3' Stamens 6

6. Ovary, young fruit ovate to ovoid, obovate, round, spheric, oblong, or elliptic, occasionally of 2 segments of such shapes

7. Petals 15–30 mm, purple to lavender (white); style, stalk above receptacle well developed ..... LUNARIA

7' Petals 0.5–12(15) mm, yellow to cream or white (lavender); style, stalk above receptacle generally 0

8. Ovary, young fruit with 24–80 ovules or seeds ..... RORIPPA (2)

8' Ovary, young fruit with 1–12(14) ovules or seeds

9. Ovary, young fruit 2-segmented

10. Petals cream or pale yellow, veins dark brown or purple; ovules 4–6 ..... [CARRICHTERA]

10' Petals white, lavender, or yellow, dark veins 0; ovules 1 or 2(4)

11. Plant stiff-hairy below; style distinct; petals yellow ..... RAPISTRUM

11' Plant glabrous; style 0; petals white to lavender ..... CAKILE (2)

9' Ovary, young fruit unsegmented

12. Ovules or seeds 1–2

13. Young fruit erect to spreading ..... LEPIDIUM (2)

13' Young fruit reflexed ..... THYSANOCARPUS

12' Ovules or seeds 6–14

14. Perennial herb, roots fleshy; stem 5–12(20) dm; basal leaves 1.5–12 dm ..... ARMORACIA

14' Biennial or perennial herb, fleshy roots 0; stem (0.1)0.5–3(4) dm; basal leaves 0.1–1 dm ..... COCHLEARIA

6' Ovary, young fruit linear (narrowly lanceolate or awl-shaped)

15. Cauline leaves compound

16. Plant aquatic, rooting from proximal stem nodes ..... NASTURTIUM

16' Plant terrestrial, not rooting from proximal stem nodes ..... CARDAMINE (4)

15' Cauline leaves simple, occasionally shallowly divided

17. Plant with multicellular stalked glands ..... CHORISPORA

17' Glands 0

18. Stamens ± equal in length, well-exserted beyond petals or all flower parts spreading

19. Petals yellow to white; filament bases hairy or papillate ..... STANLEYA

19' Petals white, lavender, or purple; filaments glabrous

20. Fruit ± sessile on receptacle ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

20' Fruit stalked above receptacle ..... THELYPODIUM

18' Stamens 4 long, 2 short, or in 3 pairs of unequal length

21. Stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length

22. Fruit cylindric; seeds wingless ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

22' Fruit distinctly to ± flattened; seeds generally winged at least at tip

23. Sepals 4–8 mm; stems (0.7)1–8 dm ..... STREPTANTHUS (2)

23' Sepals 2.8–3.2 mm; stem 0.5–2 dm

24. Longest stamens with fused filaments and sterile anthers ..... SIBAROPSIS

24' Longest stamens with free filaments and fertile anthers ..... STREPTANTHELLA

21' Stamens 4 long, 2 short

25. Petals dark-veined

26. Perennial herb or subshrub, glabrous; leaves entire or dentate ..... HESPERIDANTHUS

26' Annual, generally hairy; leaves generally pinnately lobed

27. Fruit corky, indehiscent, lower segment rudimentary, seedless ..... RAPHANUS

27' Fruit not corky, dehiscent, lower segment well developed, seeded

28. Fruit valve 3-veined; terminal segment (0)1–6-seeded ..... COINCYA

28' Fruit valve 1-veined; terminal segment seedless ..... ERUCA

25' Petals not dark-veined

29. Cauline leaves entire

30. Biennial or perennial herb with caudex; ovules 28–90 per ovary ..... BOECHERA

30' Perennial herb with rhizomes or tubers; ovules 6–28 per ovary ..... CARDAMINE (4)

29' At least proximal cauline leaves pinnately divided, lobed, wavy, or dentate

31. Petals white, pink, lavender, or purple

32. Ovules or seeds (1)2(4) ..... CAKILE (2)

32' Ovules or seeds many

33. Leaf lateral lobes linear to thread-like, entire ..... SIBARA

33' Leaf lateral lobes not linear to thread-like, generally dentate

34. At least most distal leaves entire or dentate ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

34' All leaves pinnately lobed, divided or dissected

35. Seeds wingless ..... CARDAMINE (4)

35' Seeds winged ..... PLANODES

31' Petals generally yellow

36. Inflorescence bracted at least below ..... [ERUCASTRUM]

36' Inflorescence generally not bracted

37. Ovary, young fruit 2-segmented

38. Sepals generally erect to ascending; fruit valves 1-veined ..... BRASSICA

38' Sepals spreading to reflexed; fruit valves 3–7-veined

39. Stigma entire; seeds ovoid ..... HIRSCHFELDIA

39' Stigma 2-lobed; seeds spheric ..... SINAPIS

37' Ovary, young fruit unsegmented

40. Stigma entire ..... RORIPPA (2)

40' Stigma 2-lobed

41. Seeds in 2 rows; fruit valves 1-veined ..... DIPLOTAXIS

41' Seeds in 1 row; fruit valves 3-veined ..... SISYMBRIUM

Group 3:

1. Inflorescence bracted throughout ..... TROPIDOCARPUM

1' Inflorescence not bracted or only most proximal few flowers bracted

2. Plant scapose; cauline leaves 0

3. Sepals 4–5 mm; petioles of previous year persistent ..... ANELSONIA

3' Sepals 1.5–2.5 mm; petioles of previous year not persistent ..... DRABA (3)

2' Plant not scapose; at least 1 cauline leaf present

4. Cauline leaves sessile, basally lobed to sagittate or clasping

5. All hairs tree-like ..... PHOENICAULIS

5' Hairs various, not all tree-like

6. Hairs stalked, stellate (few simple) ..... ARABIS (2)

6' Hairs sessile, or if stalked then not stellate, or a mixture of > 1 type

7. Annual; stigma 2-lobed; petals dark-veined ..... CAULANTHUS

7' Biennial or perennial herb; stigma entire; petals not dark-veined

8. Petals ± white (pink or purple); young fruit appressed to rachis; plants glaucous distally ..... TURRITIS

8' Petals white, pink, lavender, or purple; young fruit variously oriented (appressed); plants not glaucous distally

9. Fruit flattened ..... BOECHERA (2)

9' Fruit cylindric ..... TRANSBERINGIA

4' Cauline leaves petioled, if sessile not basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

10. All hairs sessile ..... ERYSIMUM

10' Hairs simple or stalked and branched

11. Stigma 2-lobed

12. Petals (6.5)8–10(12) mm ..... STRIGOSELLA

12' Petals (13)15–30 mm

13. Sepals 5–8 mm; hairs simple, stalked-forked ..... HESPERIS

13' Sepals 10–15 mm; hairs many-branched ..... MATTHIOLA

11' Stigma entire

14. Cauline leaves 1–3-pinnately divided to dissected or comb-like

15. Petals yellow; hairs many-branched ..... DESCURAINIA

15' Petals white to ± purple; hairs generally a mixture of simple, 2-forked, many-branched

16. Perennial herb; leaves rigid ..... POLYCTENIUM

16' Annual; leaves not rigid ..... SIBARA

14' Cauline leaves entire, dentate, wavy (lobed)

17. At least some leaves lobed or wavy ..... HALIMOLOBOS

17' All leaves entire or dentate

18. Petals yellow ..... DRABA (3)

18' Petals white, lavender, pink, or purple.

19. Petals (4)5–20 mm; seeds winged

20. Fruit erect or ascending, generally < 2.5 mm wide; branched hairs on leaf surface generally 2–4-rayed ..... ARABIS (2)

20' Fruit generally reflexed, occasionally erect or ascending, >= 2 mm wide; branched hairs on leaf surface 2–12-rayed ..... BOECHERA (2)

19' Petals 2–4(5) mm; seeds wingless

21. Fruit cylindric; seeds in 1 row ..... ARABIDOPSIS

21' Fruit flat; seeds in 2 rows ..... DRABA (3)

Group 4:

1. Plant scapose; cauline leaves 0

2. Ovules or seeds 1–4 ..... CUSICKIELLA (2)

2' Ovules or seeds >= 10

3. Petals yellow to orange ..... DRABA (3)

3' Petals white, lavender, rose, or purple

4. Sepals 4–5 mm; petioles of previous year persistent ..... ANELSONIA

4' Sepals 1.5–3 mm; petioles of previous year not persistent ..... DRABA (3)

1' Plant not scapose; at least 1 cauline leaf present

5. Cauline leaves sessile, basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

6. Perennial herb with well-developed woody caudex; hairs many-branched ..... PHOENICAULIS

6' Annual or biennial (perennial herb), woody caudex 0; hairs a mixture of different types

7. Petals white (pink); at least some branched hairs sessile, stellate ..... CAPSELLA

7' Petals yellow (white); branched hairs stalked, not stellate ..... CAMELINA

5' Cauline leaves petioled, if sessile then not basally lobed or clasping

8. Inflorescence bracted throughout ..... TROPIDOCARPUM

8' Inflorescence not bracted or occasionally most proximal flowers bracted

9. Petals strongly 2-lobed ..... BERTEROA

9' Petals entire or notched

10. Inflorescence 1-sided; young fruit reflexed; annual ..... ATHYSANUS

10' Inflorescence not 1-sided; young fruit not reflexed; annual to subshrub

11. Cauline leaves only with sessile, 2-rayed hairs ..... LOBULARIA

11' Cauline leaves with various hair types but never only as above

12. At least some filaments winged, dentate, or appendaged

13. Annual; style 0.3–1.6 mm ..... ALYSSUM (2)

13' Perennial herb; style 4–12 mm ..... [AUBRIETA]

12' All filaments wingless, not dentate, or unappendaged

14. Ovules or seeds 1 or 2, near ovary or fruit tip

15. Petals (10)12–15 mm ..... DITHYREA

15' Petals 0.9–3(4) mm

16. Petals 0.9–1.3 mm; ovaries, young fruit ovoid ..... EUCLIDIUM

16' Petals 1.5–3(4) mm; ovaries, young fruit round to obovate, flat ..... ALYSSUM (2)

14' Ovules or seeds 4–100, parietal

17. Sepals linear to oblong-linear, erect; petals narrowly oblanceolate to linear ..... LYROCARPA

17' Sepals oblong to ovate, erect to reflexed; petals ovate, obovate, spoon-shaped, oblong, or oblanceolate

18. Cauline leaves entire or dentate (wavy)

19. Leaf hairs stellate, ± sessile, webbed or not ..... PHYSARIA

19' Leaf hairs simple, forked, cross-shaped, tree-like, or a mixture of 2 or more of types, never only sessile-stellate

20. Young fruit with 1–4 seeds ..... CUSICKIELLA (2)

20' Young fruit with > 4 seeds ..... DRABA (3)

18' Cauline leaves 1–3-pinnately divided or comb-like

21. Perennial herb with well-developed caudex

22. Leaves rigid, lobes linear ..... POLYCTENIUM

22' Leaves not rigid, lobes obovate or oblong ..... SMELOWSKIA

21' Annual or biennial

23. Petals yellow; most or all hairs many-branched ..... DESCURAINIA

23' Petals white; hairs simple or forked ..... HORNUNGIA

Key to Groups Based on Fruiting Material

1. Fruit silicle

2. Hairs simple or 0 ..... Group 5

2' At least some hairs branched ..... Group 6

1' Fruit silique

3. At least some hairs branched ..... Group 7

3' Hairs simple or 0 ..... Group 8

Group 5:

1. Fruit transversely 2-segmented

2. Fruit corky; glabrous; coastal, especially beaches ..... CAKILE

2' Fruit not corky; hairy; inland habitats

3. Cauline leaves 1- or 2-pinnately divided; fruit pedicels strongly recurved; terminal segment seedless, flattened ..... [CARRICHTERA]

3' Cauline leaves dentate; fruit pedicels erect to ascending, straight; terminal segment 1(3)-seeded, spheric or ovoid ..... RAPISTRUM

1' Fruit unsegmented

4. Fruit flat parallel to septum, cylindric, or weakly flat perpendicular to septum

5. Cauline leaves 0

6. Fruit pedicel 1 from basal rosette; seeds winged; plants terrestrial ..... IDAHOA

6' Fruits in racemes; seeds wingless; plants aquatic ..... SUBULARIA

5' Cauline leaves 1–many

7. Fruit 3–5 cm, 2–3.5 cm wide; stalk above receptacle 0.7–1.8 cm ..... LUNARIA

7' Fruit <= 1.2 cm, <= 0.5 cm wide; stalk above receptacle 0(0.5) mm

8. Fruit dehiscent; ovules or seeds 5–90 per fruit

9. Fruit valve midveins distinct; ovules, seeds 8–14 per fruit; petals white ..... COCHLEARIA

9' Fruit valve midveins obscure; ovules, seeds 18–90 per fruit; petals yellow ..... RORIPPA

8' Fruit indehiscent; ovules or seeds 1–2(4) per fruit

10. Fruit ascending to spreading, cylindric, wings 0, radiating veins 0 ..... LEPIDIUM (3)

10' Fruit reflexed, flat parallel to septum, winged, veins generally radiating ..... THYSANOCARPUS

4' Fruit clearly flat perpendicular to septum

11. Cauline leaves sessile, basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

12. Fruit indehiscent, reflexed, winged, with 1 seed at ± middle ..... ISATIS

12' Fruit generally dehiscent, erect to spreading to descending, not winged, 2–16-seeded

13. Seeds 2 per fruit ..... LEPIDIUM (3)

13' Seeds 2–16 per fruit

14. Seeds smooth (minutely net-like), yellow-brown to brown ..... NOCCAEA

14' Seeds concentrically striate, ± black-brown ..... THLASPI

11' Cauline leaves petioled (0), if sessile then not basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

15. Ovules or seeds 8–24 per fruit

16. Perennial herb 5–12(20) dm, roots fleshy ..... ARMORACIA

16' Annual 0.2–3 dm, fleshy roots 0 ..... HORNUNGIA

15' Ovules or seeds 2(4) per fruit

17. Raceme not elongated in fruit; seeds winged ..... [IBERIS]

17' Racemes elongated in fruit; seeds wingless ..... LEPIDIUM (3)

Group 6:

1. Plant scapose; cauline leaves 0

2. Seed, ovules to 4 per fruit ..... CUSICKIELLA

2' Seed, ovules >= 10 per fruit

3. Seed with club-shaped hairs; fruit valves with distinct net-like lateral veins ..... ANELSONIA

3' Seed surface minutely net-like; fruit valves obscurely lateral-veined ..... DRABA (2)

1' Plant not scapose; at least 1 cauline leaf present

4. Cauline leaves sessile, basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

5. Fruit obtriangular-obcordate, flat perpendicular to septum; style 0.2–0.7 mm ..... CAPSELLA

5' Fruit pear-shaped to obovoid, flat parallel to septum; style 1–3.5 mm ..... CAMELINA

4' Cauline leaves petioled, if sessile then not basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

6. Fruit flat perpendicular to septum, or 4-valved and septum 0

7. Inflorescence bracted throughout ..... TROPIDOCARPUM

7' Inflorescence not or only basally bracted

8. Seeds 2 per fruit; fruit spectacle-shaped ..... DITHYREA

8' Seeds 4–100 per fruit; fruit not spectacle-shaped

9. Leaves generally comb-like, rigid ..... POLYCTENIUM

9' Leaves entire or variously divided, not comb-like or rigid

10. Fruit obcordate; stigma prominently 2-lobed ..... LYROCARPA

10' Fruit not obcordate; stigma entire

11. Style 2–9 mm; perennial herb ..... PHYSARIA (2)

11' Style <= 0.1 mm; annual ..... HORNUNGIA

6' Fruit flat parallel to septum, cylindric, ovoid, or 4-angled

12. Inflorescence 1-sided; fruit reflexed ..... ATHYSANUS

12' Inflorescence not 1-sided; fruit not reflexed

13. Cauline leaves 1–3-pinnately divided

14. Annual or biennial; petals yellow ..... DESCURAINIA

14' Perennial herb; petals white, lavender, or purple ..... SMELOWSKIA

13' Cauline leaves entire, crenate, dentate, or wavy

15. Seeds 1–2(4) per fruit

16. Fruit indehiscent, ovoid, occasionally 4-sided ..... EUCLIDIUM

16' Fruit dehiscent, flat parallel to septum

17. Hairs stellate, occasionally also simple; petals yellow ..... ALYSSUM

17' Hairs 2-rayed only; petals white to purple ..... LOBULARIA

15' Seeds (4)6–many per fruit

18. Filaments appendaged; petals deeply 2-lobed ..... BERTEROA

18' Filaments not appendaged; petals entire to notched

19. Hairs ± sessile, stellate; fruit septum tip generally with midvein ..... PHYSARIA (2)

19' Some hairs stalked, generally of > 1 type; fruit septum tip without midvein ..... DRABA (2)

Group 7:

1. Plant scapose; cauline leaves 0

2. Seeds with club-shaped hairs; fruit valves with distinct net-like lateral veins ..... ANELSONIA

2' Seed surface minutely net-like; fruit valves obscurely lateral-veined ..... DRABA (2)

1' Plant not scapose; cauline leaves 1 to many

3. Cauline leaves sessile, basally lobed to sagittate or clasping

4. Fruit flat parallel to septum

5. Plant with many-branched, small, tree-like hairs; ovules or seeds (6)8–16(18) per fruit ..... PHOENICAULIS

5' Plant with stellate, forked, or few-rayed hairs, if hairs tree-like then ovules > 24

6. Branched hairs stellate, 3–5-rayed; fruit straight, erect, appressed to rachis or diverging, 0.6–2 mm wide ..... ARABIS

6' Branched hairs forked, few- to many-rayed, or tree-like; fruit arc-shaped to straight, reflexed to pendent or spreading (erect), 1–6 mm wide ..... BOECHERA (2)

4' Fruit cylindric or 4-angled

7. Seeds in 1 row; stigma 2-lobed; branched hairs 2-rayed ..... CAULANTHUS

7' Seeds in 2 rows; stigma entire; branched hairs tree-like or stellate

8. Fruit pedicels ascending; fruit cylindric, not appressed to rachis ..... TRANSBERINGIA

8' Fruit pedicels erect; fruit ± 4-angled, appressed to rachis ..... TURRITIS

3' Cauline leaves petioled, if sessile then not basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

9. Inflorescence bracted throughout ..... TROPIDOCARPUM

9' Inflorescence not or only basally bracted

10. Plant hairs sessile, stellate and 2–5(8)-rayed, simple hairs 0 ..... ERYSIMUM

10' Plant with other types of branched hairs, simple hairs generally present

11. Stigma conic, prominently 2-lobed, lobes generally decurrent

12. Seeds winged ..... MATTHIOLA

12' Seed wings 0

13. Fruit glabrous, constricted between seeds; hairs simple, forked ..... HESPERIS

13' Fruit hairy, not constricted between seeds; plants with at least some many-branched hairs ..... STRIGOSELLA

11' Stigma capitate, entire, if ± 2-lobed then lobes not decurrent

14. Cauline leaves pinnately divided to dissected or comb-like

15. Fruit flat parallel to septum ..... SIBARA

15' Fruit cylindric or flat perpendicular to septum

16. Leaves pinnately lobed or dissected, not rigid; fruit cylindric ..... DESCURAINIA

16' Leaves generally comb-like, rigid; fruit ± flat perpendicular to septum ..... POLYCTENIUM

14' Cauline leaves entire or dentate (wavy)

17. Fruit cylindric; seeds in 1 row

18. Fruit glabrous; cauline leaves entire ..... ARABIDOPSIS

18' Fruit hairy; at least some cauline leaves dentate to wavy ..... HALIMOLOBOS

17' Fruit generally flat parallel to septum; seeds in (1)2 rows

19. Fruit valves with elongate simple hairs mixed with stalked-forked or smaller stellate ones ..... [AUBRIETA]

19' Fruit valves glabrous or with hairs of 1 size or type

20. Fruit narrowly linear; seeds winged (wing 0) ..... BOECHERA (2)

20' Fruit lanceolate to oblong (linear); seeds wingless — if winged then cauline leaves 1 ..... DRABA (2)

Group 8:

1. Plant scapose; cauline leaves 0

2. Perennial herb, cespitose; ovules or seeds 8–18 per fruit; petals white ..... CARDAMINE (2)

2' Annual (short-lived perennial herb); ovules or seeds 20–36 per fruit; petals yellow ..... DIPLOTAXIS (2)

1' Plant not scapose; at least 1 cauline leaf present

3. Plant glandular ..... CHORISPORA

3' Plant not glandular

4. Fruit indehiscent

5. Fruit winged, flat, lanceolate, not segmented, 1-seeded ..... ISATIS

5' Fruit wings 0, cylindric or angled, segmented, seeds generally >= 1

6. Style ± absent; plant glabrous ..... CAKILE

6' Style 1–5 mm; plant hairy ..... RAPHANUS

4' Fruit dehiscent

7. Fruit segmented

8. Seeds in 2 rows

9. Terminal fruit segment not flattened; petal veins same color as blade ..... DIPLOTAXIS (2)

9' Terminal fruit segment flattened; petal veins darker than blade ..... ERUCA

8' Seeds in 1 row

10. Fruit valves prominently 3–7-veined

11. Fruit (30)40–150-seeded; sepals erect ..... COINCYA

11' Fruit 4–16(24)-seeded; sepals spreading or reflexed ..... SINAPIS

10' Fruit valves obscurely veined or only midvein prominent

12. Inflorescence bracted ..... [ERUCASTRUM]

12' Inflorescence not bracted

13. Fruit spreading to erect, not appressed to rachis, terminal segment seedless or 1- or 2-seeded, if appressed then terminal segment seedless ..... BRASSICA

13' Fruit erect, appressed to rachis, terminal segment 1- or 2-seeded ..... HIRSCHFELDIA

7' Fruit unsegmented

14. Fruit flat parallel to septum

15. Placenta margin flat in fruit; fruit valves coiled when dehiscent ..... CARDAMINE (2)

15' Placenta margin not flat in fruit; fruit valves not coiled when dehiscent

16. Seed wings 0

17. Stalk above receptacle 6–28 mm ..... STANLEYA (2)

17' Stalk above receptacle 1–4(5) mm

18. All cauline leaves pinnately dissected, segments thread-like or linear ..... SIBARA

18' At least some cauline leaves entire to dentate or pinnately lobed, segments not thread-like or linear

19. Most distal leaves entire — stamens generally in 3 pairs of unequal length ..... STREPTANTHUS (2)

19' Most distal leaves dentate or lobed

20. Cauline leaves sessile, basally lobed or clasping; petals yellow ..... BARBAREA (2)

20' Cauline leaves petioled, not basally lobed or clasping; petals white to purple ..... THELYPODIUM (3)

16' Seeds winged at least at tip

21. Stamens 4 long, 2 short; petals clawed

22. At least some cauline leaves entire or dentate ..... BOECHERA

22' All cauline leaves pinnately lobed ..... PLANODES

21' Stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length; petals generally not clawed

23. Fruit strongly reflexed, tip indehiscent, forming a beak ..... STREPTANTHELLA

23' Fruit generally erect to spreading (reflexed), dehiscent throughout, beak 0.

24. Sepals 2.8–3.2 mm; stem 0.5–2 dm ..... SIBAROPSIS

24' Sepals 4–8 mm; stem (0.7)1–8 dm ..... STREPTANTHUS (2)

14' Fruit cylindric or 4-angled

25. Cauline leaves pinnately compound; proximal nodes rooting ..... NASTURTIUM

25' Cauline leaves simple; proximal nodes not rooting

26. Stalk above receptacle 6–28 mm ..... STANLEYA (2)

26' Stalk above receptacle 0–4(5) mm

27. Cauline leaves basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

28. Cauline leaves dentate to pinnately lobed

29. Seeds in 2 rows ..... RORIPPA (2)

29' Seeds in 1 row

30. Biennial or perennial herb; petals not crinkled ..... BARBAREA (2)

30' Annual; petals generally crinkled ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

28' Cauline leaves entire or wavy

31. Fruit 4-angled; petals yellow ..... CONRINGIA

31' Fruit cylindric; petals white to purple ..... THELYPODIUM (3)

27' Cauline leaves not basally lobed, sagittate, or clasping

32. Stigma prominently 2-lobed

33. Fruit valves 1-veined; petals purple to white ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

33' Fruit valves distinctly 3-veined; petals yellow ..... SISYMBRIUM

32' Stigma entire

34. Perennial herb, occasionally subshrub, caudex woody ..... HESPERIDANTHUS

34' Annual or biennial

35. Stalk above receptacle slender, 1–5 mm; inflorescence spike-like ..... THELYPODIUM (3)

35' Stalk above receptacle stout, 0–1 mm; inflorescence not spike-like

36. Seeds in 1 row; petals (2.5)4–17 mm ..... CAULANTHUS (3)

36' Seeds in 2 rows; petals 0.5–0.8 mm ..... RORIPPA (2)

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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