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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Stem: ± scapose. Leaf: ± basal, reduced upward, linear, generally folded, ± curved, entire, deciduous after 1 year. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flower bracts 1 (or reportedly 2). Flower: staminate, sterile, or generally bisexual; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to ± yellow [or not], adaxially with 1 glands near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary superior, chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, septicidal. Seed: many.
± 8 species: central United States, western North America. (Greek: poison garlic, for poisonous bulb) All taxa highly TOXIC (generally unpalatable) to livestock, humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs). As treated in TJM (1993), Zigadenus polyphyletic, so California members transferred to Toxicoscordion (Zomlefer & Judd 2002 Novon 12:299–308).
1. Perianth parts 2–8 mm; stamens >= perianth
2. Inflorescence a panicle; flowers bisexual or on branches sterile or staminate; outer perianth parts generally ± not clawed; bracts 5–15 mm, green; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... T. paniculatum
2' Inflorescence a panicle or raceme except occasionally with 1 branch below; flowers bisexual; outer perianth parts often clawed; bracts 5–40 mm, green to white-membranous; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
3. Plant scabrous at least below; pedicels in fruit generally spreading, with tips upturned or not, 12–40 mm; proximal inflorescence branches in fruit 60–90° from main axis; Northwestern California ..... T. micranthum
3' Plant glabrous; pedicels in fruit spreading to generally ascending, 3–25 mm; proximal inflorescence branches in fruit 10–60° from main axis; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... T. venenosum var. venenosum
1' Perianth parts 4–15 mm; stamens generally < perianth (± = perianth in Toxicoscordion fontanum)
4. Bract 2–8 mm, < 1/2 pedicel; filaments curved, thin; fruit width 1/2 length ..... T. brevibracteatum
4' Bract 3–50 mm, 1/3–3 × pedicel; filaments straight, proximally thick; fruit elongate, width generally < 1/2 length
5. Flowers bisexual except on lower inflorescence branches staminate or with stunted ovary; perianth parts 5–12 mm, outer often persistently reflexed below fruit; bulbs often clumped; Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... T. exaltatum
5' Flowers bisexual; perianth parts 4–15 mm, outer not persistently reflexed below fruit; bulbs not clumped; not Sierra Nevada Foothills
6. Perianth ± bell-shaped, parts 4–12 mm, ovate to elliptic; bracts 5–35 mm; inflorescence narrow, often pyramid-shaped in youth; North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges ..... T. fontanum
6' Perianth rotate, parts 5–15 mm, widely ovate; bracts 5–50 mm; inflorescence wide; Northwestern California, c Sierra Nevada Foothills (just west of Chinese Camp, Tuolumne Co.), Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... T. fremontii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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