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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Stem: ± scapose.
Leaf: ± basal, reduced upward, linear, generally folded, ± curved, entire, deciduous after 1 yr.
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flower bracts 1 (or reportedly 2).
Flower: staminate, sterile, or generally bisexual; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to ± yellow [or not], adaxially with 1 glands near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary superior, chambers 3, styles 3.
Fruit: capsule, septicidal.
± 8 species: c US, w North America. (Greek: poison garlic, for poisonous bulb) All taxa highly TOXIC (generally unpalatable) to livestock, humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs); caused serious illness to some members of Lewis and Clark Expedition. As treated in TJM (1993), Zigadenus polyphyletic, so CA members transferred to Toxicoscordion (Zomlefer & Judd 2002 Novon 12:299–308).
1. Perianth parts 2–8 mm; stamens >= perianth
2. Infl a panicle; flowers bisexual or on branches sterile or staminate; outer perianth parts generally ± not clawed; bracts 5–15 mm, green; NW, CaR, n SNH, GB ..... T. paniculatum
2' Infl a panicle or raceme except occasionally with 1 branch below; flowers bisexual; outer perianth parts often clawed; bracts 5–40 mm, green to white-membranous; NW, CaR, SN, CW, WTR, PR, GB, DMtns
3. Plant scabrous at least below; pedicels in fruit generally spreading, with tips upturned or not, 12–40 mm; proximal inflorescence branches in fruit 60–90° from main axis; NW ..... T. micranthum
3' Plant glabrous; pedicels in fruit spreading to generally ascending, 3–25 mm; proximal inflorescence branches in fruit 10–60° from main axis; NW, CaR, SN, CW, WTR, PR, GB, DMtns ..... T. venenosum var. venenosum
1' Perianth parts 4–15 mm; stamens generally < perianth (± = perianth in Toxicoscordion fontanum)
4. Bract 2–8 mm, < 1/2 pedicel; filaments curved, thin; fruit width 1/2 length ..... T. brevibracteatum
4' Bract 3–50 mm, 1/3–3 × pedicel; filaments straight, proximally thick; fruit elongate, width generally < 1/2 length
5. Fls bisexual except on lower inflorescence branches staminate or with stunted ovary; perianth parts 5–12 mm, outer often persistently reflexed below fruit; bulbs often clumped; SNF ..... T. exaltatum
5' Fls bisexual; perianth parts 4–15 mm, outer not persistently reflexed below fruit; bulbs not clumped; not SNF
6. Perianth ± bell-shaped, parts 4–12 mm, ovate to elliptic; bracts 5–35 mm; inflorescence narrow, often pyramid-shaped in youth; NCoR, SnFrB, SCoRI ..... T. fontanum
6' Perianth rotate, parts 5–15 mm, widely ovate; bracts 5–50 mm; inflorescence wide; NW, c SNF (just w of Chinese Camp, Tuolumne Co.), ScV, CW, SW ..... T. fremontii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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