Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Toxicoscordion

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1. Perianth parts 2–8 mm; stamens >= perianth

2. Inflorescence a panicle; flowers bisexual or on branches sterile or staminate; outer perianth parts generally ± not clawed; bracts 5–15 mm, green; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... T. paniculatum

2' Inflorescence a panicle or raceme except occasionally with 1 branch below; flowers bisexual; outer perianth parts often clawed; bracts 5–40 mm, green to white-membranous; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains

3. Plant scabrous at least below; pedicels in fruit generally spreading, with tips upturned or not, 12–40 mm; proximal inflorescence branches in fruit 60–90° from main axis; Northwestern California ..... T. micranthum

3' Plant glabrous; pedicels in fruit spreading to generally ascending, 3–25 mm; proximal inflorescence branches in fruit 10–60° from main axis; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... T. venenosum var. venenosum

1' Perianth parts 4–15 mm; stamens generally < perianth (± = perianth in Toxicoscordion fontanum)

4. Bract 2–8 mm, < 1/2 pedicel; filaments curved, thin; fruit width 1/2 length ..... T. brevibracteatum

4' Bract 3–50 mm, 1/3–3 × pedicel; filaments straight, proximally thick; fruit elongate, width generally < 1/2 length

5. Flowers bisexual except on lower inflorescence branches staminate or with stunted ovary; perianth parts 5–12 mm, outer often persistently reflexed below fruit; bulbs often clumped; Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... T. exaltatum

5' Flowers bisexual; perianth parts 4–15 mm, outer not persistently reflexed below fruit; bulbs not clumped; not Sierra Nevada Foothills

6. Perianth ± bell-shaped, parts 4–12 mm, ovate to elliptic; bracts 5–35 mm; inflorescence narrow, often pyramid-shaped in youth; North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges ..... T. fontanum

6' Perianth rotate, parts 5–15 mm, widely ovate; bracts 5–50 mm; inflorescence wide; Northwestern California, c Sierra Nevada Foothills (just west of Chinese Camp, Tuolumne Co.), Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... T. fremontii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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