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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Guy L. Nesom

Annual to perennial herb, generally taprooted. Stem: 1–several from base, generally woolly-tomentose, sometimes stalked- or sessile-glandular. Leaf: basal and cauline or mostly cauline, often ± clasping and/or decurrent, generally narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate, entire, ± tomentose, sometimes adaxially glandular. Inflorescence: heads disciform, generally in tight groups in flat-topped to cyme- or panicle-like cluster; involucre cylindric to generally urn-shaped, ± bell-shaped when pressed; phyllaries graduated in (2)3–7(10) series, persistent, ± spreading when dry, bases generally green, distally generally sessile-glandular, tips generally stiff-papery, opaque or clear, dull or shiny, ± white, rosy, tawny, or brown; receptacle flat to convex, epaleate, glabrous. Pistillate flower: many; corolla narrowly tubular, minutely lobed, ± yellow to ± red. Disk flower: few; corolla yellow or ± red; anther tip ± triangular; style branches truncate, hair-tufted. Fruit: oblong-compressed or cylindric, glabrous or ± papillate; pappus bristles in 1 series, deciduous, generally free, or weakly coherent.
± 100 species: worldwide, mostly America, generally temperate. (Greek: deceptively similar to Gnaphalium, a related genus) [Nesom 2006 FNANM 19:415–425]
Unabridged references: [Nesom 2004 Sida 21:781–790]

Key to Pseudognaphalium

1. Opposing leaf faces strongly to weakly contrasting in color, adaxial green, not tomentose (except Pseudognaphalium biolettii), sometimes glandular, abaxial generally gray to white, tomentose

2. Leaves crowded, internodes 1–3(10) mm; leaf blade linear to lance-linear, margin strongly rolled under; phyllaries bright white, opaque, dull; fruit ridged, smooth ..... P. leucocephalum

2' Leaves not crowded, internodes generally > 5 mm; leaf blade oblong or lanceolate to oblanceolate (distal sometimes linear), flat or margin slightly curled under; phyllaries straw-colored to shiny white (± pink), opaque or transparent, dull or shiny; fruit papillate-roughened or ridged, smooth

3. Stem not glandular; leaf base not decurrent, clasping with ear-like basal lobes, opposing faces strongly contrasting in color ..... P. biolettii (2)

3' Stem stalked-glandular; leaf base decurrent, weakly to not clasping, opposing faces strongly to weakly contrasting in color ..... P. macounii

1' Opposing leaf faces not or weakly contrasting in color, both generally gray to gray-green or ± green, tomentose, adaxially sometimes glandular beneath long hairs

4. Leaf base ± clasping, decurrent 1–2 mm or not (decurrent 2–15 mm in Pseudognaphalium californicum)

5. Inflorescence a dense terminal cluster or ± open, cyme-like; involucre 3–6 mm; phyllaries ± white, silver-gray to ± yellow or brown, transparent; pistillate flowers 135–200; pappus bristles loosely coherent, shed in clusters or easily fragmented rings

6. Involucre 3–4 mm; disk flowers 4–10; pistillate corolla red-tipped; fruit papillate ..... P. luteoalbum

6' Involucre 4–6 mm; disk flowers generally 18–28; pistillate corolla evenly yellow; fruit glabrous ..... P. stramineum

5' Inflorescence ± flat-topped to panicle-like cluster; involucre 4–7 mm; phyllaries generally silvery white to white, sometimes pink, generally opaque; pistillate flowers 29–140; pappus bristles distinct, released singly

7. Stem stalked-glandular; abaxial leaf face generally green, stalked-glandular; phyllaries in 7–10 series ..... P. californicum (2)

7' Stem not glandular; abaxial leaf face generally white-tomentose or woolly-tomentose; phyllaries in 4–6 series

8. Annual or short-lived perennial herb; involucre 4–4.5 mm ..... P. roseum

8' Perennial herb; involucre 5–6 mm

9. Plant sharply scented; adaxial leaf face densely stalked-glandular ..... P. biolettii (2)

9' Plant unscented; adaxial leaf face not glandular ..... P. microcephalum (2)

4' Leaf base not ± clasping, decurrent or not

10. Leaf base not decurrent

11. Involucre 4–5 mm; phyllaries in 3–4 series; disk flowers (1)2–5(6); stem 2–3 mm diam near base; adaxial leaf face occasionally sessile-glandular beneath long hairs ..... P. canescens

11' Involucre 5–6 mm; phyllaries in 4–6 series; disk flowers 5–9; stem 3–5 mm diam near base; adaxial leaf face not glandular ..... P. microcephalum (2)

10' Leaf base decurrent

12. Stem not glandular, leaves sessile-glandular beneath long hairs ..... P. thermale

12' Stem and leaves stalked-glandular, glands sometimes obscured by nonglandular hairs

13. Leaf densely, loosely gray-tomentose ..... P. beneolens

13' Leaf green or thinly gray-tomentose

14. Leaf generally narrowly lance-oblong, 5–10(20) mm wide; inflorescence flat-topped cluster; involucre bell-shaped to ± spheric when pressed; phyllaries in 7–10 series, white to pink ..... P. californicum (2)

14' Leaf linear to lanceolate, oblong, or narrowly spoon-shaped, 3–5(7) mm wide; inflorescence panicle-like cluster, generally elongate to widely columnar; involucre short-cylindric to top-shaped when pressed; phyllaries in 4–5 series, generally ± pink, sometimes white to ± green ..... P. ramosissimum


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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