Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Boraginaceae

View taxon page for Boraginaceae

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Plants non-green, parasitic ..... PHOLISMA

1' Plants green, non-parasitic

2. Ovary deeply (2)4-lobed, style base generally ± hidden within lobes; fruit 1–4 free nutlets

3. Nutlets spreading

4. Corolla blue to red-purple; nutlet ± spheric or disk-shaped, prickles barbed; biennial, perennial herb ..... CYNOGLOSSUM

4' Corolla white; nutlet generally compressed, prickles straight or hooked at tip, not barbed; annual

5. Calyx lobes in fruit unequal, upper 2 >> others, partly fused, arched over 1 nutlet, with 5–10 stout spines each with hooked bristles; nutlets 2 ..... HARPAGONELLA

5' Calyx lobes in fruit ± equal or, if unequal, upper 2 > others, free, not arched over 1 nutlet, without spines but with hooked or straight prickles; nutlets generally 4 ..... PECTOCARYA

3' Nutlets ± erect

6. Corolla rotate; anthers 5–8 mm, closely appressed to style, separating in age ..... BORAGO

6' Corolla salverform, funnel-shaped, or ± tubular (except Symphytum); anthers < 5 mm, generally not closely appressed to style

7. Flowers 1–2 per leaf axil; calyx lobes with 1–2 teeth in fruit ..... ASPERUGO

7' Flowers 1 per distal leaf axil or in 1–many dense to elongate cymes, variously arranged; calyx lobes without teeth in fruit

8. Nutlet scar ± flat to strong-convex, with thick rim

9. Corolla appendages ovate to oblong, generally distal to anthers; corolla throat ± expanded distal to tube or tube and throat not differentiated ..... ANCHUSA

9' Corolla appendages lance-linear to lanceolate, at same level as anthers; corolla throat expanded distal to tube ..... SYMPHYTUM

8' Nutlet scar flat, curved, or grooved, without thick rim

10. Receptacle ± flat; nutlet scar generally basal (except Mertensia)

11. Shrub, 1–3+ m ..... ECHIUM (2)

11' Annual, biennial, perennial herb

12. Corolla white to yellow

13. Corolla tube > lobes; inflorescence bracts throughout ..... LITHOSPERMUM

13' Corolla tube << lobes; inflorescence bracts at base or to middle ..... [Myosotis verna]

12' Corolla generally blue to purple (white to yellow)

14. Corolla ± bilateral ..... ECHIUM (2)

14' Corolla radial

15. Corolla often ± cylindric or bell-shaped, blue, generally pink in bud ..... MERTENSIA

15' Corolla salverform or wide-funnel-shaped, generally blue, white, or yellow ..... MYOSOTIS

10' Receptacle ± conic or elongate; nutlet scar generally lateral

16. Nutlet margin prickles generally barbed

17. Perennial herb (biennial); pedicel recurved to reflexed in fruit; receptacle ± 1/2 nutlet ..... HACKELIA

17' Annual; pedicel erect in fruit; receptacle ± = nutlet ..... LAPPULA

16' Nutlet margin prickles 0 or not barbed

18. Corolla tube, limb orange or yellow (red-orange)

19. Annual ..... AMSINCKIA

19' Perennial herb ..... Cryptantha confertiflora

18' Corolla tube, limb white to cream-yellow

20. Nutlet adaxially grooved distal to scar, scar raised or generally not ..... CRYPTANTHA

20' Nutlet adaxially keeled distal to scar; scar generally raised ..... PLAGIOBOTHRYS

2' Ovary entire or shallow-lobed, style base visible; fruit generally a capsule (4 initially fused nutlets in Heliotropium, Tiquilia)

21. Shrub, small tree

22. Leaf blade < 6 cm wide; stamens included; stigmas not lobed; seeds 2–15 ..... ERIODICTYON

22' Leaf blade (3-)10–35 cm wide; stamens exserted; stigmas 2-lobed; seeds >= 200 ..... WIGANDIA

21' Annual, perennial herb, subshrub

23. Calyx lobes not alike, outer 3 cordate ..... TRICARDIA

23' Calyx lobes alike or not, not cordate

24. Calyx sinus appendages generally present (0 in Pholistoma membranaceum, sometimes 0 in Nemophila pulchella); annual

25. Ovary, fruit hairy, not bristly ..... NEMOPHILA

25' Ovary, fruit bristly-hairy ..... PHOLISTOMA

24' Calyx sinus appendages 0; annual, perennial herb, subshrub

26. Styles 2, clearly distinct throughout length

27. Plant 1–3 m ..... Eriodictyon parryi

27' Plant generally < 0.5 m

28. Annual ..... NAMA (2)

28' Perennial herb

29. Leaves entire; inflorescence not spheric, interrupted by leaf-like bracts ..... Eriodictyon lobbii

29' Leaves crenate-dentate; inflorescence spheric, not interrupted by leaf-like bracts ..... Nama rothrockii

26' Styles 0–1, 2-lobed or not, sometimes nearly to base

30. Leaves cauline, opposite ..... DRAPERIA

30' Leaves basal or, if cauline, at least some alternate

31. Ovary ± lobed; fruit nutlets

32. Style 0 or not lobed; stigma 1 ..... HELIOTROPIUM

32' Style deeply 2-lobed; stigmas 2 ..... TIQUILIA

31' Ovary not lobed; fruit a capsule

33. Annual

34. Herbage sticky; ovules on both sides of placenta; 1–2 seeds persistent in fruit ..... EUCRYPTA

34' Herbage generally not sticky (except Emmenanthe, some Phacelia species); ovules on 1 side of placenta; seeds not persistent in fruit

35. Stamens generally unequal, attached at different levels ..... NAMA (2)

35' Stamens generally equal, attached ± at same level

36. Flowers ± subspreading to pendent; corolla persistent, white, yellow, or pink, in age papery ..... EMMENANTHE

36' Flowers spreading to erect; corolla generally deciduous, blue to purple, occasionally persistent, yellow (purple), in age not papery ..... PHACELIA (2)

33' Perennial herb

37. Plant with fleshy-fibrous or tuber-like roots or base bulb-like; style ± 2-lobed

38. Leaves compound to simple, deep-lobed, sinuses reaching midrib, stamens exserted; seeds 1–3 ..... HYDROPHYLLUM

38' Leaves simple, entire, toothed, or lobed, sinuses not reaching midrib; stamens included; seeds many ..... ROMANZOFFIA

37' Plant taprooted, base not bulb-like, tubers 0; style 2-lobed to -branched

39. Inflorescence many-flowered; leaves generally lobed to compound, sometimes entire ..... PHACELIA (2)

39' Inflorescence 1–several-flowered; leaves entire

40. Inflorescence 1-flowered; style tip 2-lobed; seeds many ..... HESPEROCHIRON

40' Inflorescence 1–several-flowered; style cleft ± to base; seeds 2–4 ..... HOWELLANTHUS


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.