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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: generally twining or trailing. Leaf: opposite, generally ± persistent; blade thread-like to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: at nodes, umbel-[raceme-]like cyme. Flower: corolla lobes ± spreading to erect-incurved, ring of tissue at corolla base present or not; filament column appendages ± 0 or free from each other, fused to ring of tissue at corolla base or not, ± spheric, attached to base of filament column, without projections, hollow (possibly due to complete fusion of margins), anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; pistil head flat or, if ± conic, 2-lobed or not; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: generally 1, erect or pendent, narrow-fusiform to lance-ovoid, with fine longitudinal grooves [or smooth].
2n=20,22,40,44 (reports not including California plants).
± 40 species: North America, Africa to Australia. (Greek: fleshy crown or wreath, from sac-like filament column appendages of some species) [Liede & Täuber 2002 Syst Bot 27:789–800] Our species treated as Cynanchum, Sarcostemma in TJM (1993), both shown to be polyphyletic in previous, broader circumscriptions (Liede & Täuber 2000, 2002).
Unabridged references: [Holm 1950 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 37:477–560; Liede 1996 Syst Bot 21:31–44; Liede-Schumann & Meve 2006 http://www.uni-bayreuth.de/departments/planta2/research/databases/delta_as/www/funa.htm; Liede & Täuber 2000 Plant Syst Evol 225:133–140; Sundell 1981 Evol Monogr 5:1–63]
1. Corolla lobes erect-incurved, meeting above anther head, giving appearance of closed flower bud; filament column appendages ± 0; ring of tissue at corolla base 0 ..... F. utahense
1' Corolla lobes ± spreading to ± erect, not meeting, not giving appearance of closed flower bud; filament column appendages free from each other; ring of tissue at corolla base present
2. Leaf narrow- to wide-lanceolate, margins generally wavy; calyx lobes 3–6 mm; corolla 8–12 mm; filament column 1–2 mm, appendage bases exceeding ring of tissue at corolla base; fruit generally 1, 8.5–12.5 cm ..... F. crispum
2' Leaf linear to lanceolate, margins not wavy; calyx lobes 2–3 mm; corolla 3–8 mm; filament column 0.5–1 mm, appendage bases not exceeding ring of tissue at corolla base; fruit 1–2, 3.6–4.8 or 7.2–11.2 cm
3. Corolla 4–8 mm, ring of tissue at base free from filament column appendages; plant green, generally with sparse, ± appressed hairs; fruit generally 1, 7.2–11.2 cm ..... F. cynanchoides var. hartwegii
3' Corolla 3–6 mm, ring of tissue at base fused to filament column appendages; plant gray-green, generally with dense, short, erect hairs; fruit generally 2, 3.6–4.8 cm ..... F. hirtellum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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