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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb or subshrub, deciduous, generally late summer, fall; hairs generally in stellate clumps, rarely glandular (except inflorescence), sparse to dense. Stem: generally erect, ± broom-like. Leaf: basal 0 [present]; cauline generally alternate, generally linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, sessile to short-petioled, margins entire, generally rolled under, stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like, glandular hairs on branches, pedicels generally 0 to sparse; cleistogamous flowers 0 [present]. Flower: sepals 5, outer 2 generally narrower; petals yellow; stamens 10–many; style < 2 mm, stigma ± hemispheric. Fruit: generally ± ovoid; valves generally 3.
21 species: North America to South America. (Greek: yellow flower) [Sorrie 2012 Phytologia 93:270–271] Esp abundant after fire, resprouting from woody caudex. New World taxa transferred from polyphyletic Helianthemum by Sorrie. Descriptions refer to opening flowers; cleistogamous flowers (0 in California), sometimes produced later, lack petals. Flowers of Crocanthemum scoparium from Mt. Diablo reported to have 5 stamens, which instead seem to represent 5 united pairs.
Unabridged note: Based on molecular and other data (as yet unpublished, by Jenny Arrington & Paul Manos) Helianthemum is polyphyletic; California taxa more closely related to Crocanthemum and Hudsonia than to Helianthemum; New World members treated in Crocanthemum by Sorrie, who is preparing treatment for FNANM.
1. Glandular hairs dense on inflorescence branches, pedicels; outer sepals lanceolate; calyx hairs 1–1.7 mm, simple, strigose (sometimes also with short stellate hairs) ..... C. greenei
1' Glandular hairs 0 to sparse on inflorescence branches, pedicels; outer sepals linear; calyx hairs <= 1 mm, stellate
2. Petals 4–8 mm; inner sepals 3.5–5(7.5 sporadically along coast and on Santa Cruz Island) mm; fruit 3–4 mm; stems 10–45 cm, spreading to erect, together cup-like or not; deciduous in mid summer ..... C. scoparium
3. Plants generally 10–30 cm; stems proximally spreading and distally ascending or proximally ascending and distally erect; outer sepals 1.5–2.5 mm; North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast (rare), n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island) ..... C. scoparium var. scoparium
3' Plants generally 30–45 cm; stems proximally ascending and distally erect or generally erect throughout; outer sepals 2–3.5 mm; Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... C. scoparium var. vulgare
2' Petals 8–12 mm; inner sepals 4.7–7(8) mm; fruit 3.5–4.3 mm; stems 30–80 cm, erect, together not cup-like; deciduous late summer, fall
4. Stems ± glabrous to sparsely stellate-hairy, leaves and inflorescences stellate-felt-like; inflorescences wide; South Coast, Peninsular Ranges ..... C. aldersonii
4' Stems, leaves, inflorescences densely stellate-felt-like (occasionally stems moderately stellate-hairy); inflorescences narrow; n Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... C. suffrutescens
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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