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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual, occasionally perennial herb, from taproot. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, lanceolate to ovate, pinnately lobed with large terminal lobe (simple), margin dentate to entire, abaxial face and/or margin with ± conspicuous brown oil cells, long-petioled. Inflorescence: erect or nodding raceme. Flower: generally opening at dawn (occasionally at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed; petals 4, yellow or white (often fading orange-red) or lavender, generally fading red, if yellow generally strongly ultraviolet reflective, often with 1+ red spots near base, occasionally non-reflective near base or throughout; stamens (4)8, longer opposite sepals, anthers attached at middle, filaments long-ciliate or glabrous, pollen grains 3-angled at 20×; stigma entire and spheric or rarely conic-peltate, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated or ± = anthers and self-pollinated. Fruit: straight to curved, not twisted or coiled, valves with obvious midrib, pedicelled. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, lenticular to narrowly ovoid, with ± pronounced membranous margin when immature.
16 species: western North America. (Greek: juice) [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Incl in Camissonia in TJM (1993).
Unabridged references: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161–396]

Key to Chylismia

1. Hypanthium 4.5–40 mm; plant with cauline, simple leaves; rosette 0 or poorly developed (sect. Lignothera)

2. Hypanthium 18–40 mm; inflorescence open; sepals 8–15 mm ..... C. arenaria

2' Hypanthium 4.5–14 mm; inflorescence dense; sepals 3–9 mm ..... C. cardiophylla

3. Hypanthium 4.5–12 mm; hairs generally spreading, occasionally some glandular; c&s Mojave Desert (San Bernardino Co.), Sonoran Desert ..... subsp. cardiophylla

3' Hypanthium 9–14 mm; hairs generally glandular, some spreading, nonglandular; n Mojave Desert (Inyo Co.) ..... subsp. robusta

1' Hypanthium 0.4–8 mm; plant generally with well-developed basal rosette, occasionally cauline leaves also present; leaves generally 1-pinnate (sect. Chylismia)

4. Petals lavender, base generally yellow, lavender-dotted; rosette poorly developed ..... C. heterochroma

4' Petals yellow or white, occasionally fading purple or red or base purple- or red-dotted; rosette well developed

5. Fruit generally < 2 mm wide, ± same width throughout

6. Sepals 1.5–4 mm; hypanthium 1–1.5 mm; stigma ± = anthers; inflorescence erect; lateral leaflets < 30 mm ..... C. walkeri subsp. tortilis

6' Sepals 5–9 mm; hypanthium 3–8 mm; stigma > anthers; inflorescence nodding; lateral leaflets generally < 10 mm or 0 ..... C. brevipes

7. Flower bud reflexed; petals generally fading red ..... subsp. arizonica

7' Flower bud not reflexed; petals not fading red

8. Plant hairs spreading; sepals in bud with free subterminal tips; petals not red-dotted ..... subsp. brevipes

8' Plant strigose (spreading-hairy proximally); sepals in bud without free tips; petals generally red-dotted ..... subsp. pallidula

5' Fruit > 2 mm wide, wider toward tip

9. Pedicel and fruit becoming reflexed; petals yellow ..... C. munzii

9' Pedicel and fruit spreading or ascending; petals white or yellow ..... C. claviformis

10. Plant spreading-hairy proximally; free tips of sepals in bud conspicuous; petals generally yellow ..... subsp. peirsonii

10' Plant strigose or glabrous proximally (except Chylismia claviformis subsp. cruciformis); free tips of sepals in bud 0 or inconspicuous (except Chylismia claviformis subsp. funerea); petals white or yellow

11. Petals yellow

12. Plant strigose distally, also glandular or not; free tips of sepals in bud 0 or short ..... subsp. yumae

12' Plant glabrous distally or glandular-hairy; free tips of sepals in bud 0

13. Terminal leaflet ovate to ± cordate, lateral leaflets few to many; flower generally opening at dawn ..... subsp. cruciformis

13' Terminal leaflet lanceolate, lateral leaflets 0–few; flower opening at dusk ..... subsp. lancifolia

11' Petals white (pale yellow in Chylismia claviformis subsp. claviformis)

14. Lateral leaflets generally well developed

15. Plant strigose distally (glandular-hairy) ..... subsp. aurantiaca

15' Plant ± glabrous distally or with few glandular hairs ..... subsp. claviformis

14' Lateral leaflets generally 0 or poorly developed

16. Free tips of sepals in bud conspicuous; plant generally strigose distally ..... subsp. funerea

16' Free tips of sepals in bud 0 or minute; plant ± glabrous distally or generally with some glandular hairs ..... subsp. integrior


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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