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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, perennial herb, ± fleshy, from taproot or fibrous roots, glabrous. Stem: 1–several, generally spreading to ascending. Leaf: basal or basal and cauline, simple, oblanceolate to spoon-shaped; basal rosetted. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or umbel, scapose, bracts generally < sepals, leaf-like or not; flowers generally on 1 side of axis, persistent in fruit or not; pedicels ± jointed with a transverse groove or constriction. Flower: sepals 2, ovate to reniform, generally scarious or scarious-margined, persistent in fruit; petals 2–4, < sepals, tips adherent, forming cap in fruit (fruit cap), falling as 1 unit; stamens 1–3, anthers pink, rose, or yellow; style included to exserted, stigmas 2. Fruit: 2-valved, generally compressed, narrowly oblong to ± round, generally translucent, deciduous or not. Seed: 1–many, black, dull, fine- to coarse-papillate to shiny, smooth.
8 species: western North America. (Greek: cap, for petal tips in fruit) [Hershkovitz 2006 Gayana Bot 63:13–74]
Unabridged references: [Hershkovitz 1990 Phytologia 68:267–270; Hershkovitz 1991a Ann Missouri Bot Gard 78:1009–1021; Hershkovitz 1991b Phytologia 70:209–225; Hershkovitz 1992 Syst Bot 17:220–238; Hershkovitz & Zimmer 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 15:419–439; Hinton 1975 Brittonia 27:197–208; Howell 1945 Leafl W Bot 4:214–216; Kelley et al. 2003 FNANM: 4:460–464; Thomas 1956 Leafl W Bot 8:9–11]
1. Perennial herb; style thread-like, 2–4 mm, exserted
2. Inflorescence >= 2 per rosette; cauline leaves generally present; petals rose to white ..... C. monospermum
2' Inflorescence generally 1 per rosette; cauline leaves generally 0; petals white ..... C. umbellatum
1' Annual; style thread-like or not, generally < 2 mm, generally including
3. Style 1–2 mm; seeds 1–3, 0.7–0.9 mm; c Sierra Nevada ..... C. pulchellum
3' Style < 0.5 mm; seeds >= 4, 0.4–0.8 mm; widespread, including e slope High Sierra Nevada (for C. roseum) but otherwise excluding c Sierra Nevada
4. Seed < 0.5 mm, papillae generally 0 or marginal; pedicel 1–3 mm, slender
5. Petals 4; stamens generally 3 ..... C. pygmaeum
5' Petals 2; stamen 1 ..... C. roseum
4' Seed >= 0.5 mm, papillae marginal or throughout (except Calyptridium parryi var. arizonicum); pedicel < 2 mm, thickened (slender, 1–2 mm in Calyptridium quadripetalum)
6. Petals generally 3; stamen 1; fruit oblong to linear; seeds 4–10, generally from base to above middle of fruit, often in ± 1 row ..... C. monandrum
6' Petals 4; stamens 1–3; fruit widely ovate or lanceolate to elliptic or oblong; seeds 5–many, generally from base to middle of fruit, not in ± 1 row
7. Seed coarsely papillate generally throughout; basal leaves generally persistent in fruit; flowers deciduous in fruit; sepals scarious throughout ..... C. quadripetalum
7' Seed smooth or ± finely papillate throughout or on margin; basal leaves generally withering in fruit; flowers persistent in fruit to not; sepals generally scarious on margin or becoming scarious throughout ..... C. parryi
8. Seed smooth, 0.7–0.8 mm; fruit 6–7 mm; w Sonoran Desert ..... var. arizonicum
8' Seed papillate, at least on margin, generally 0.5–0.7 mm; fruit < 6 mm; sw San Francisco Bay Area, s Outer South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
9. Seed papillae throughout; s Outer South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains ..... var. parryi
9' Seed papillae marginal; sw San Francisco Bay Area, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
10. Seed 0.5–0.6 mm; sepals ovate, with generally narrowly scarious margin; 600–1050 m, sw San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. hesseae
10' Seed 0.6–0.7 mm; sepals ovate to reniform, with widely scarious margin or scarious throughout; 1500–2990 m, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains ..... var. nevadense
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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