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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ACMISPON DEERVETCH, DEERWEED

Luc Brouillet


Annual, perennial herb, shrub, unarmed. Leaf: generally odd-1-pinnate (or ± palmately compound, rarely some or most simple); stipules often gland-like, bump-like, or conic, often not apparent; leaflets 3–9, generally irregularly arranged, lowest not stipular in position. Inflorescence: umbel or 1–2-flowered, axillary, generally peduncled, often bracted. Flower: corolla generally yellow (white, pink), fading darker; 9 filaments fused, 1 free. Fruit: dehiscent or not, exserted from calyx or not, ovoid to oblong, ± beaked. Seed: 1–several.
± 23 species: southwestern Canada, western United States, Mexico, 1 sp. in Chile. (Greek: tip, probably for hooked-tipped fruit) [Brouillet 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:387–394] Intermediates may be hybrids.
Unabridged etymology: (Greek acme, point, apex, probably for the hooked-tipped fruit)
Unabridged references: [Isely 1981 Mem New York Bot Gard 25:128–206; Sokoloff 2000 Ann Bot Fenn 37:125–131]
Unabridged note: Pollen has 4(7) apertures.

Key to Acmispon

1. Fruit dehiscent, generally flat, generally ± entirely exserted from calyx body, straight or ± curved, generally with straight or curved, 0.5–1.5 mm beak; annual, perennial herb

2. Perennial herb (except Acmispon strigosus); fruit straight or ± curved; wings generally > keel; stigma ± glabrous or finely hairy

3. Annual, generally prostrate, mat-forming; inflorescence generally 1–2-flowered; corolla 5–10 mm; leaf axis flat, ± blade-like; fruit generally curved near tip ..... A. strigosus (2)

3' Perennial herb or shrub-like, prostrate (mat-forming or not) to erect; inflorescence 1–9-flowered; corolla 7–25 mm; leaf axis not flat or blade-like; fruit generally straight (or curved throughout, rarely only at or near tip)

4. Leaf axis including petiole 10–35 mm; leaflets 7–9, 1–2.2 cm, length 1.5–3 × width ..... A. grandiflorus

5. Plant puberulent or soft-hairy; leaflets generally 1–1.5 cm ..... var. grandiflorus

5' Plant ± glabrous, finely strigose, or puberulent; leaflets generally 1.6–2.2 cm ..... var. macranthus

4' Leaf axis including petiole 1–8 mm; leaflets 3–5, < 1 cm and/or length > 3 × width

6. Shrub-like, ascending, (2)5–15 dm, finely strigose; corolla 12–24 mm ..... A. rigidus

6' Perennial herb, prostrate or low-ascending, 1–3 dm, silvery-silky or gray-puberulent; corolla 6–12 mm ..... A. argyraeus

7. Stem generally prostrate, mat-forming; calyx lobes ± 2 mm; San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Desert Mountains ..... var. argyraeus

7' Stem decumbent to low-ascending; calyx lobes 2–3 mm; Desert Mountains

8. Leaflet oblanceolate to obovate, length ± 3–4 × width; New York Mtns ..... var. multicaulis

8' Leaflet obovate, length ± 2 × width; Providence Mtns ..... var. notitius

2' Annual; fruit generally straight; wings generally ± <= keel; stigma glabrous or puberulent

9. Flowers generally 1 per leaf axil; peduncle << 1 cm, bracts 0

10. Corolla white, pale yellow, or pink, often darkening in age; plant generally ascending to erect and calyx lobes < 2 × tube, or rarely prostrate and calyx lobes generally > 2 × tube

11. Plant generally 1–4 dm; calyx lobes ± 1.5 × tube ..... A. denticulatus

11' Plant < 1 dm; calyx lobes ± 2 × tube ..... A. rubriflorus

10' Corolla yellow, reddening in age; plant prostrate to low-ascending; calyx lobes 0.8–2 × tube

12. Calyx lobes 1–2 × tube; fruit generally 3–4 mm wide; plant generally with soft, spreading hairs ..... A. brachycarpus

12' Calyx lobes ± 0.8–1.2 × tube; fruit generally 2.3–3 mm wide; plant ± strigose or hairs soft, spreading ..... A. wrangelianus

9' Flowers 1–several per leaf axil; peduncle generally > 1 cm, generally bracted

13. Inflorescence generally 2–4-flowered (1st-formed often 1–2-flowered); leaflets 3–7, obovate to ± round, terminal generally largest ..... A. maritimus

14. Corolla 3.5–5 mm, keel > other petals; fruit 1–1.5 cm, becoming narrowed between seeds ..... var. brevivexillus

14' Corolla 6–10 mm, keel ± = other petals; fruit 1.5–3 cm, not narrowed between seeds ..... var. maritimus

13' Inflorescence generally 1-flowered; leaflets 1–9, lanceolate to obovate, ± equal

15. Calyx lobes >> tube; leaflets generally 3 (upper leaves often simple) ..... A. americanus var. americanus

15' Calyx lobes ± <= tube; leaflets 3–9

16. Stem ascending to erect; leaf axis sometimes ± flat; corolla pink or salmon, quickly fading; fruit straight, margin often wavy ..... A. parviflorus

16' Stem prostrate, often mat-forming; leaf axis flat; corolla yellow; fruit generally curved near tip, margin not wavy ..... A. strigosus (2)

1' Fruit indehiscent, generally not flat, generally included or ± exserted (sometimes exserted) from calyx body, curved most of length, generally with curved, 2–3 mm beak; generally perennial herb

17. Annual, prostrate, decumbent, or ascending; young growth ± not hairy; corolla 3–7 mm; fruit exserted; South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, generally s of Los Angeles

18. Inflorescence ± sessile; s South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California ..... A. micranthus

18' Inflorescence peduncled; s South Coast (San Diego Co.) ..... A. prostratus

17' Perennial herb, shrub, prostrate to erect; young growth hairy if plant blooming 1st year or flowers < 7 mm; fruit included or exserted; widespread, including Southwestern California

19. Perennial herb, shrub; Channel Islands

20. Calyx shaggy-hairy; fruit included (except slowly elongating beak); leaf generally silvery-silky with fine, straight, ultimately wavy or tangled hairs ..... A. argophyllus (2)

21. Inflorescence peduncled, not crowded; calyx lobes 1.5–2.5 mm; stem prostrate to ascending ..... var. argenteus

21' Inflorescence ± sessile, crowded at stem tip; calyx lobes 2.5–5 mm; stem ascending to erect

22. Stem generally erect; leaves overlapping; calyx lobes ± 2.5–4 mm; s Channel Islands (San Clemente Island) ..... var. adsurgens

22' Stem generally ascending; leaves not overlapping; calyx lobes 2.5–5 mm; n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island) ..... var. niveus

20' Calyx ± glabrous or strigose; fruit soon-exserted; leaf green or gray, sparsely or densely strigose or silky ..... A. dendroideus

23. Leaflets 3, densely strigose or ± silky, generally gray; n Channel Islands (San Miguel Island) ..... var. veatchii

23' Leaflets 3–5, finely or sparsely strigose, green; Channel Islands (except San Miguel Island)

24. Fruit 1–1.5 cm; peduncle bract 0; Channel Islands (except San Miguel, San Clemente Islands) ..... var. dendroideus

24' Fruit 2.5–5 cm; peduncle bract generally pres; s Channel Islands (San Clemente Island) ..... var. traskiae

19' Perennial herb (except Acmispon glaber); mainland

25. Leaflets 3; inflorescence 1–3-flowered, ± sessile

26. Leaflet 2–5 mm; fruit 6–9 mm; uncommon, se Peninsular Ranges, sw Sonoran Desert ..... A. haydonii

26' Leaflet 4–15 mm; fruit 10–15 mm; widespread, including Peninsular Ranges

27. Calyx glabrous (see couplet 31 for vars.) ..... A. glaber (2)

27' Calyx strigose ..... A. procumbens

28. Corolla 9–12 mm; calyx 4–6 mm, lobes ± = tube; s Sierra Nevada ..... var. jepsonii

28' Corolla 6–8 mm; calyx 2–3 mm, lobes << tube; not s Sierra Nevada ..... var. procumbens

25' Leaflets >= 3; inflorescence 2–15-flowered, sessile or peduncled

29. Leaflet glabrous or finely strigose, generally green; hairs straight or ± wavy

30. Plants generally ascending to erect (some on immediate coast prostrate), bushy-branched, 5–20 dm; stem sparsely leafy; corolla yellow; calyx lobes generally 1–2 mm, not curved outward; coastal and inland ..... A. glaber (2)

31. Keel prominent, > wings; corolla generally 8–9 mm; generally inland, Southwestern California, Sonoran Desert ..... var. brevialatus

31' Keel not prominent, ± = wings; corolla 7–12 mm; coastal and inland, North Coast, North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... var. glaber

30' Plants prostrate or low-ascending, < 10 dm; stem leafy; corolla pink-white or yellow; calyx lobes generally < 1 mm or curved outward; especially coastal

32. Calyx lobes narrow, some or all curved outward or hooked; corolla generally white to ± pink (to brick-red when dry) ..... A. cytisoides

32' Calyx lobes wide, straight, not hooked; corolla yellow ..... A. junceus

33. Peduncles 8–25 mm; stem often wiry, generally decumbent; fruit well exserted ..... var. biolettii

33' Peduncles 1–5 mm; stem generally stout, prostrate to ascending; fruit ± exserted ..... var. junceus

29' Leaflet hairy, green, gray, or silvery; hairs straight or wavy

34. Stem, especially near tip, generally with spreading or obliquely directed, often straight, stiff hairs < 0.5 mm; corolla 4–6 mm; coastal and inland ..... A. heermannii

35. Corolla generally 4–5 mm; ovary generally finely strigose; South Coast, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Sonoran Desert ..... var. heermannii

35' Corolla generally 5–6 mm; ovary generally soft spreading-hairy; North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges ..... var. orbicularis

34' Stem generally strigose or with ± spreading, often wavy hairs 0.2–0.4 mm; corolla 5–12 mm; especially inland

36. Fruit exserted; leaflet hairs generally wavy, not obscuring surface; leaves gray or green ..... A. nevadensis

37. Flowers generally 3–5 per inflorescence; calyx 6–7 mm, appearing blocky; banner abruptly upcurved 90° Transverse Ranges, ne Peninsular Ranges ..... var. davidsonii

37' Flowers generally 5–12 per inflorescence; calyx 5–10 mm, not appearing blocky; banner upcurved 30–90° Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, South Coast, w Peninsular Ranges, Desert Mountains ..... var. nevadensis

36' Fruit included or ± exserted; leaflet hairs generally straight, tangled in age, generally obscuring surface; leaves silky-silvery ..... A. argophyllus (2)

38. Inflorescence generally < 1 cm wide, 4–8-flowered; corolla 6–10 mm; especially c Sierra Nevada and s ..... var. argophyllus

38' Inflorescence often ± 1.5 cm wide, 10–15-flowered; corolla 8–12 mm; n Sierra Nevada ..... var. fremontii

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