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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



David J. Keil & G. Ledyard Stebbins

Annual, biennial [perennial herb] from strong taproot; herbage ± glabrous in California; sap milky. Stem: branches few, stiffly ascending. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, sessile, sheathing, entire, grass-like. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1, generally closed by mid-day; peduncle long, bractless; involucre cylindric, urn-shaped, or narrowly conic in bud, ± bell-shaped in flower; phyllaries in 1 series, linear to lanceolate, acute, reflexed in fruit; receptacle flat to convex, pitted, epaleate. Flower: corolla yellow to bronze or purple; ligules readily withering. Fruit: 2.5–3 cm, cylindric or ± fusiform, 5–10-ribbed, ribs generally roughened; beak stout, > body; pappus of stout plumose bristles, 2° bristles tangled, tips of a few 1° bristles exceeding others, unbranched; fruits spreading, forming spheric ball 4–5 cm diam.
± 150 species: Eurasia, Mediterranean, northern Africa, widely naturalized (hybrid species have evolved from aliens in western North America). (Greek: goat's beard) [Soltis 2006 FNANM 19:303–306]
Unabridged references: [Soltis et al. 2004 Biol J Linn Soc 82:485–501]
Unabridged note: Allotetraploid hybrid species Tragopogon mirus Ownbey (Tragopogon dubius × Tragopogon porrifolius) and Tragopogon miscellus Ownbey (Tragopogon pratensis × Tragopogon dubius) have originated (apparently multiple times) in western North America. Neither has yet been reported from California, but may be expected, especially where parental species co-occur. Hybrids variably combine features of parents.

Key to Tragopogon

1. Corolla purple; phyllaries >= flowers ..... T. porrifolius

1' Corolla pale to bright yellow; phyllaries < to >> flowers

2. Peduncles in flower much wider distally; corolla pale lemon-yellow; ligules of outer flowers much exceeded by phyllaries ..... T. dubius

2' Peduncles in flower not or slightly wider distally; corolla bright yellow; ligules of outer flowers exceeding phyllaries or at same level ..... T. pratensis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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