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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial herb from taproot; sap milky. Stem: 0. Leaf: simple, basal, blades oblong to obovate, oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, with large distal lobe or not, ± toothed or pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1, scapes unbranched, hollow; involucre cylindric to bell-shaped (urn-shaped in fruit); outer phyllaries (6)8–18(20), graduated in 2–3 series, erect or reflexed, ovate to lanceolate, tips horned or not; main phyllaries 7–25 in 2(3) series, equal, erect, spreading to reflexed in fruit, linear, tips horned or not, margin often scarious, irregularly toothed; receptacle ± flat, glabrous, epaleate. Flower: (15)20–150; ligules yellow, readily withering. Fruit: oblanceoloid to obovoid, with slender beak >> body, 4–12-ribbed, ribs sharply roughened, glabrous; pappus of 50–150, white, slender, minutely barbed bristles.
60(2000) species, many reproducing by asexually produced seeds: Eurasia, North America, South America, ± worldwide as weeds. (Arabic to Persian: bitter herb) [Brouillet 2006 FNANM 19:239–252]
1. Leaves toothed or shallowly lobed, sessile or petioles widely winged; outer phyllaries erect, lanceolate to widely ovate; main phyllaries (10)12–16(17)
2. Tips of outer and main phyllaries generally not horned; San Bernardino Mountains ..... T. californicum
2' Tips of outer and main phyllaries often with horn-like appendages; White and Inyo Mountains ..... T. ceratophorum
1' Leaves of flower plants generally sharply cut, lobes often ± toothed or with 2° lobes, petioles ± narrowly winged; outer phyllaries reflexed, lanceolate; main phyllaries 13–19
3. Fruit red to ± red-brown or purple; leaves generally sharply cut; petioles slightly winged distally ..... T. erythrospermum
3' Fruit olive or olive-brown to straw-colored or ± gray; leaves ± widely lobed, or occasionally sharply cut; petioles ± winged ..... T. officinale
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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