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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

STEPHANOMERIA

L.D. Gottlieb


Annual to subshrub, glabrous or hairy; sap milky. Stem: 1–5+, ascending or erect, simple or branched, 1–20 dm. Leaf: alternate, basal rosette and cauline, generally ± thin, linear to oblanceolate, entire to pinnately lobed, generally withered at flower in annual and some perennial herb; distal cauline generally reduced and ± bract-like. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1 or in dense or panicle-like clusters from nodes along branches, ± sessile to peduncled; involucre cylindric; phyllaries generally in 2 series, outer < 1/4–1/2 × inner; appressed or reflexed; inner equal, glabrous or glandular-hairy; receptacle smooth or pitted, epaleate. Flower: 4–21; ligules lavender, pink, or white, readily withering. Fruit: 1.9–6.5 mm; ± cylindric, 5-angled, each face generally with long, narrow, central groove; pappus of 5–40, white to tan bristles, wholly plumose or plumose at least on distal 1/2, free throughout or widened at bases and then basally fused, generally in groups of 2–4, deciduous entirely or only widened bristle bases persistent after distal portion breaks off.
16 species: western North America. (Greek: wreath division, alluding to plumose pappus bristles) [Gottlieb 2006 FNANM 19:350–359] Annual species complexly interrelated, distinguished by different combinations or expressions of same traits; mature fruits and pappus needed for identification. Stephanomeria blairii moved to Munzothamnus, Stephanomeria spinosa to Pleiacanthus.
Unabridged references: [Gottlieb 1972 Madroño 21:463–481]

Key to Stephanomeria

1. Perennial herb from woody caudex or from stout or slender rhizome

2. Flowers 4–6(8); cauline leaves generally much reduced, bract-like, generally withered at flower

3. Plant from woody caudex; pappus bristles generally tan, plumose on distal 80% ..... S. pauciflora

3' Plant from rhizome; pappus bristles white, wholly plumose ..... S. tenuifolia

2' Flowers 7–21; cauline leaves persistent, green at flower

4. Plant from woody caudex; leaves 10–20 cm; young herbage tomentose; phyllaries many, graduated in several series; receptacle pitted ..... S. cichoriacea

4' Plant from rhizome; herbage glabrous or sparsely hairy; phyllaries in 2 series, inner long, outer < 1/2 × inner; receptacle smooth

5. Leaf margins not thickened, spines 0; leaves 3–8 cm; pappus bristles wholly plumose; dry forest, n California ..... S. lactucina

5' Leaf margins thickened, with minute spines; leaves 2–8 cm; pappus bristles plumose on distal 80%; East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... S. parryi

1' Annual, taprooted

6. Fruit without long groove on each face ..... S. virgata

7. Outer phyllaries appressed; flowers 5–6; California Floristic Province, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... subsp. pleurocarpa

7' Outer phyllaries reflexed; flowers 8–9; Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California ..... subsp. virgata

6' Fruit with long groove on each face

8. Heads in small, ± open panicle-like clusters from nodes along branches; peduncles 10–40 mm ..... S. exigua (2)

9. Outer phyllaries reflexed — Central Coast, South Coast Ranges ..... subsp. carotifera

9' Outer phyllaries appressed

10. Peduncles, involucres densely glandular; South Coast, Peninsular Ranges ..... subsp. deanei

10' Peduncles, involucres glabrous or sparsely glandular; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert ..... subsp. exigua

8' Heads 1 or in clusters on spreading peduncles <= 10 mm, from nodes along branches

11. Pappus bristles wholly plumose or at least to widened bases

12. Outer phyllaries reflexed (appressed); flowers 9–15; widespread ..... S. elata

12' Outer phyllaries appressed; flowers 5; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... S. paniculata

11' Pappus bristles plumose on distal 60–85%, widened at base or not

13. Flowers 11–13; fruit 1.9–2.3 mm; pappus bristles plumose on distal 80–85%, not widened at bases, entirely deciduous — South Coast, Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... S. diegensis

13' Flowers 5–11; fruit 2.3–6.5 mm; pappus bristles plumose on distal 60–85%, bases generally widened, generally only bristle bases persistent ..... S. exigua (2)

14. Outer phyllaries appressed; peduncles generally 2–5 mm (<= 20 mm on Sierra Nevada e slope and to n and e); widespread ..... subsp. coronaria

14' Outer phyllaries reflexed; peduncles 5–10 mm; c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... subsp. macrocarpa

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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