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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



John C. Semple

Perennial herb from woody caudex or rhizome, branched distally. Leaf: alternate, often sessile, resinous or not. Inflorescence: heads radiate, few to many, in ± flat-topped to panicle-like, often ± 1-sided clusters; involucre cylindric to bell-shaped; phyllaries generally ± graduated in 3–5 series, midrib generally ± swollen, translucent, tip flat or slightly swollen; receptacle slightly convex, honeycombed, ridges uneven, epaleate. Ray flower: few to many; ray yellow. Disk flower: few to many; corolla yellow, generally glabrous; anther tip narrowly triangular; style branches finely papillate, tips triangular. Fruit: obconic, compressed; pappus of 25–45 long-barbed bristles in 1 series.
± 100 species: especially North America (South America, Eurasia). (Greek: make-well, for purported medicinal value) [Semple & Cook 2006 FNANM 20:107–166]

Key to Solidago

1. Mid-cauline leaves largest

2. Peduncle bracts, and/or phyllaries sparsely to moderately minutely stalked-glandular; stem generally glabrous proximally; inflorescence pyramid-shaped, proximal branches not crowded; n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... S. lepida var. salebrosa

2' Inflorescence not glandular; stem ± hairy to base, not waxy distally; inflorescence pyramid- or club-shaped; widespread

3. Inflorescence ± widely pyramid-shaped; involucre 3–5 mm; leaves weakly serrate; disturbed sites ..... S. altissima subsp. altissima

3' Inflorescence ± club-shaped; involucre 2.5–3.5 mm; leaves generally serrate; ± undisturbed sites ..... S. elongata

1' Proximal cauline or basal leaves largest

4. Inflorescence generally flat- to round-topped; phyllaries long-acuminate, not strongly graduated; leaf generally long-ciliate ..... S. multiradiata

4' Inflorescence generally panicle- or raceme-like, generally ± pyramid- or club-shaped, but not flat- or round-topped; phyllaries obtuse, rounded, acute or acuminate, ± strongly graduated; leaf not long-ciliate

5. Leaves and heads strongly resinous; North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... S. spathulata

5' Leaves and heads not strongly resinous; widespread

6. Herbage sparsely to densely short-hairy; distal nodes without axillary leaf-clusters ..... S. velutina

7. Herbage ± densely short-hairy; outer phyllaries strigose; disk corolla throat obscure ..... subsp. californica

7' Herbage ± sparsely short-hairy; outer phyllaries ± glabrous; disk corolla throat ± obvious ..... subsp. sparsiflora

6' Herbage ± glabrous; distal nodes often with axillary leaf-clusters

8. Phyllaries lanceolate to ± ovate, not inrolled, obtuse to acuminate; rays 6–21; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada (e slope), Great Basin Floristic Province ..... S. spectabilis

8' Phyllaries very narrowly triangular, inrolled near tip, sharply acute; rays 3–13; Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California, White and Inyo Mountains, n Desert Mountains

9. Leaves generally < 10 × longer than wide; inflorescence generally club-shaped, panicle-like ..... S. confinis

9' Leaf generally 10+ × longer than wide; inflorescence generally narrow, sometimes spike-like — s Inner South Coast Ranges ..... S. guiradonis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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