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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial, from generally branched rhizome; rosettes often clumped.
Leaf: most or all basal, cauline 0 or proximal only, generally opposite, sessile, lanceolate or oblanceolate to linear, entire or minutely dentate, glabrous, silky-hairy, or minutely coarse-hairy, and/or glandular.
Inflorescence: glandular, sometimes also hairy; heads radiate or discoid, generally 1; involucre 3–25+ mm diam, hemispheric or bell-shaped to cylindric; phyllaries as many as ray flowers, each generally 1/2+ enveloping a ray ovary, falling with fruit, coarse-hairy and ± glandular; receptacle flat or convex, glabrous or minutely bristly; paleae in 1 involucre-like series between ray and disk flowers or peripheral in discoid heads, fused or free, ± equal, ciliate-hairy.
Ray flower: 0–13; corolla yellow to red; ray often deeply lobed.
Disk flower: 7–80+; corolla same color as ray flowers, tube < throat, lobes deltate; anthers ± yellow, tips lance- ovate to ovate- oblong; style branches glabrous proximal to branches, tips awl-shaped, bristly.
Fruit: ± cylindric, ± straight, ascending-hairy, black; ray and disk pappus of 8–30, awl-shaped or ± bristle-like, ciliate-plumose scales or ray pappus 0.
3 species: montane CA, OR, w NV. (Latin: small Raillardia or Railliardia) [Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:256–257] Self-sterile.
Unabridged disk flower: anthers bases cordate-sagittate.
Unabridged references: [Carlquist et al. 2003 Tarweeds and silverswords: evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae)]
1. Lvs glabrous or cauline (especially distal) sometimes glandular; corolla orange to ± red; ray flowers 6–13; disk flowers 45–80+ ..... R. pringlei
1' Lvs silky-hairy or glandular and sometimes sparsely, minutely coarse-hairy; corolla yellow to yellow-orange; ray flowers 0–5(7); disk flowers 7–40+.
2. Lvs silky-hairy, silvery, sometimes sparsely glandular, glands inconspicuous; ray flowers 0; plant 1–15 cm ..... R. argentea
2' Lvs glandular, occasionally sparsely and minutely coarse-hairy; ray flowers 0–5(7); plant 6–53 cm ..... R. scaposa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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