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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



L.D. Gottlieb

Annual; taprooted; sap milky. Stem: 1–3, erect, simple or branched distally, hollow, glabrous. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate; basal oblong to oblanceolate, pinnately lobed, ± petioled or sessile; cauline sessile, clasping; distal bract-like, entire or toothed. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1 or in cyme- or panicle-like clusters; involucre cylindric to obconic; outer phyllaries 8–14, spreading to reflexed, unequal, < 1/2 × inner; main phyllaries ± 7–20, ± equal, lance-linear, scarious-margined, acuminate, reflexed in fruit; receptacle flat to convex, minutely roughened, epaleate. Flower: 15–30; ligule white or cream, often rose-tinged, especially abaxially, readily withering. Fruit: 9–18(20) mm, ± fusiform, tan to mottled gray-brown, body tapered to beak, ribs 5; outer fruits with upward-pointing hairs, papillate, or scaly, inner fruits mostly smooth to weakly wrinkled; pappus on small disk at beak tip, of 5–21 ± persistent, ± plumose bristles.
2 species: southwestern United States, northern Mexico. (C.S. Rafinesque, naturalist, polymath, traveled widely in Am, 1783–1840) [Gottlieb 2006 FNANM 19:348–349]

Key to Rafinesquia

1. Ligules surpassing phyllaries by 5–8 mm; fruit beak slender, > body; pappus bristles wholly plumose; barbs straight, separate ..... R. californica

1' Ligules surpassing phyllaries by 15–20 mm; fruit beak stout, < body; pappus bristles plumose on proximal 65–80%; barbs crooked, entangled ..... R. neomexicana


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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