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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ASTERACEAE (Compositae) SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, except as noted


Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae

Key to Groups

1. None of flowers of head with strap-shaped corollas that resemble spreading petals [ligulate flowers 0, ray flowers 0 or rays very short and easily overlooked]; heads discoid, disciform, or radiant

2. Flowers of 2 kinds, in same or different heads

3. Heads radiant; corollas of outer flowers [bisexual or sterile] conspicuously expanded, often ± bilateral ..... Group 1

3' Heads disciform [pistillate or sterile flowers and bisexual or staminate flowers] or unisexual, corollas of pistillate or sterile flowers inconspicuous or 0 ..... Group 2

2' Flowers of 1 kind [disk flowers] — heads discoid

4. Receptacle bearing scale-like bracts [paleae] that generally individually subtend disk flowers or bearing hair-like bristles or tooth-like to membranous or bristle-like scales among flowers

5. Receptacle paleate or bearing tooth-like to membranous scales ..... Group 3

5' Receptacle bristly or of long, bristle-like scales (free or fused at base) ..... Group 4

4' Receptacle epaleate or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries (sometimes bearing minute scales or short hairs among flowers)

6. Pappus 0 or only a low crown ..... Group 5

6' Pappus well developed

7. Pappus of bristles (sometimes with an additional series of shorter bristles or scales) ..... Group 6

7' Pappus of flat, ± membranous scales or stiff, ± needle-like awns ..... Group 7

1' Some or all flowers of head with strap-shaped corollas or corolla lips [ligules or rays] that resemble spreading petals; heads liguliflorous, composed of 2-lipped flowers, or radiate

8. Head composed of 1 kind of flower; central flowers sometimes smaller or less mature but all bisexual and with same kind of corolla

9. Head liguliflorous; corolla 1-lipped, the spreading, petal-like ligule tipped by 5 short lobes [ligulate flowers]; corolla readily withering; sap milky ..... Group 8

9' Head composed of 2-lipped flowers; outer corolla lip shallowly 3-lobed, spreading, resembling ray of ray flower, inner lip deeply 2-lobed, recurved or coiled; corolla not readily withering; sap clear ..... Group 9

8' Head radiate, composed of 2 kinds of flowers; outer flowers [ray flowers] pistillate or sterile, corolla bilateral with generally spreading, petal-like lip [ray]; inner flowers [disk flowers] bisexual (staminate) with generally radial, (4)5-lobed tubular corolla

10. Receptacle bearing scale-like bracts [paleae] that generally individually subtend disk flowers (sometimes only a single ring of paleae separate ray and disk flowers)

11. Phyllaries in 1(2) series, each subtending a ray flower ..... Group 10

11' Phyllaries in 2+ series, not all subtending ray flowers ..... Group 11

10' Receptacle epaleate or bearing minute scales or hairs (rarely long bristles or awn-like projections) among flowers

12. Pappus 0 or only a low crown ..... Group 12

12' Pappus well developed on ray or disk fruits (or both)

13. Pappus of flat, ± membranous scales or stiff, ± needle-like awns ..... Group 13

13' Pappus of bristles (sometimes with an additional series of shorter bristles or scales)

14. Rays white to pink, blue, or purple ..... Group 14

14' Rays yellow to orange or red ..... Group 15

Group 1: Heads radiant; corollas of outer flowers enlarged, often ± bilateral

1. Phyllaries graduated in 4–8 series

2. Outer flowers fruiting

3. Pappus of bristles; annual, taprooted ..... LESSINGIA {G6,7}

3' Pappus a crown of short scales; perennial herb with rhizome ..... Tanacetum bipinnatum

2' Outer flowers sterile

4. Distal phyllary margin expanded as a spiny-margined, fringed, or irregularly toothed appendage ..... CENTAUREA {G2,4}

4' Distal phyllary margin entire, tapered smoothly to tip-spine ..... VOLUTARIA {G4}

1' Phyllaries ± equal or weakly graduated in 1–3 series

5. Fruit 10–15 mm ..... PALAFOXIA {G7}

5' Fruit 2–9 mm

6. Phyllary margin thin, ± scarious, brown to purple ..... HYMENOTHRIX {G7}

6' Phyllary margin not or scarcely scarious, variously colored

7. Leaves opposite ..... Arnica discoidea

7' Leaves alternate

8. Pappus scales entire or fringed; leaf entire to ± deeply 1–2-pinnately lobed ..... CHAENACTIS {G7}

8' Pappus scales dissected into bristles; leaf sharply dentate or with a few short, sharp lobes ..... TRICHOPTILIUM {G6,7}

Group 2: Heads disciform or unisexual; flowers of 2 kinds or of 1 unisexual kind; corollas of pistillate or sterile flowers inconspicuous

1. Pistillate and staminate flowers in different heads

2. Pistillate and staminate heads on same plant [monoecious]

3. Subshrub or shrub (to small tree) ..... AMBROSIA (2)

3' Herb

4. Stem armed with 3-branched spines ..... Xanthium spinosum

4' Stem unarmed

5. Staminate heads well-spaced in long terminal inflorescence; bur 2–10 mm ..... AMBROSIA (2)

5' Staminate heads congested; bur 10–30+ mm ..... Xanthium strumarium

2' Pistillate and staminate heads on different plants [dioecious]

6. Shrub or erect herb with sticky leaves, not woolly ..... BACCHARIS {G6}

6' Herb, sometimes prostrate, not sticky; plant generally ± woolly

7. Stem from rhizome; leaf rosette withered at flower; cauline leaves long, all except distal-most ± equal ..... ANAPHALIS (2) {G6}

7' Stem from persistent leaf rosette or thick, often branched caudex; cauline leaves generally ± reduced, at least distal-most short, 1–3 cm ..... ANTENNARIA {G6}

1' Pistillate or sterile flowers in same head as staminate or bisexual flowers

8. Outer flowers without corollas; heads not embedded in woolly hairs

9. Heads solitary; plant low, stems often spreading or prostrate

10. Head on slender ± leafless peduncle; outer fruits stalked, not spine-tipped ..... COTULA

10' Head sessile near stem base or at branch tips, ± enveloped by sheathing bases of opposite or whorled subtending leaves, overtopped by branches; fruit sessile, spine-tipped ..... SOLIVA

9' Heads in raceme- or panicle-like clusters

11. Annual; fruit smooth or warty, generally winged, glabrous or hairy ..... DICORIA

11' Subshrub or shrub; fruit long-soft-hairy, not winged ..... Euphrosyne acerosa

8' Outer flowers with (sometimes narrowly cylindric) corollas; heads sometimes embedded in woolly hairs

12. Outer flowers sterile; head not very small, not embedded in woolly hairs

13. Cauline leaves generally bladeless, sheathing; basal leaves from creeping rhizome, often appearing after flower stem, long-petioled, palmately lobed ..... PETASITES {G14}

13' Cauline leaves with blades, sometimes reduced distally on stem, not sheathing; basal leaves 0 or from taproot, appearing before flower stem, sessile or petioled, entire to 1–2-pinnately lobed

14. Fertile flowers 1–2 per head ..... CRUPINA {G3}

14' Fertile flowers many per head

15. Leaf spiny ..... Centaurea benedicta {G4}

15' Leaf not spiny

16. Pappus of awns with reflexed barbs; phyllaries in 2 series, unarmed ..... BIDENS {G3,11}

16' Pappus 0 or of smooth or minutely rough bristles or narrow scales; phyllaries graduated in 6+ series, often fringed or spine-tipped (see also Volutaria canariensis) ..... CENTAUREA {G1,4}

12' Outer flowers pistillate [corolla often narrowly cylindric]; heads sometimes very small, embedded in woolly hairs

17. Phyllaries (or outermost bracts of head) papery, membranous,+ or scarious, sometimes green only in proximal 1/2 or in narrow, central band; heads often embedded in woolly hairs

18. Phyllaries 0 or 1–6, not overlapping, < flowers; outer receptacle paleate; some or all pistillate flowers individually subtended by paleae (which often resemble phyllaries)

19. Disk flowers bisexual, pappus generally of 13–28+ bristles, ± exserted; inner pistillate flowers with pappus

20. Receptacle ± cylindric, height 5–15 × diam; most pistillate paleae open to folded around pistillate flowers, but not enclosing them, acuminate or bristle-tipped; innermost paleae erect or ascending in fruit; outer fruit ± = inner ..... FILAGO

20' Receptacle mushroom-shaped to obovoid, length 0.4–15 × width; most pistillate paleae ± enclosing pistillate flowers, obtuse to acute; innermost paleae spreading in fruit; outer fruit > inner ..... LOGFIA

19' Disk flowers staminate, pappus 0 or 1–12 bristles, included; pistillate flower pappus 0

21. Paleae subtending disk flowers (disk paleae) enlarged, rigid, ± spreading, very different from scales subtending pistillate flowers (pistillate paleae)

22. Disk palea tips strongly incurved to hooked inward, acuminate or abruptly pointed, often spine-like; pistillate paleae closed, strongly 3-veined or middle vein obscure, tips generally strongly scarious-winged; receptacle not bristly, generally widest at tip ..... ANCISTROCARPHUS

22' Disk palea tips erect or spreading, ± flat to folded, not spine-like, obtuse; pistillate paleae open, concave, veins obscure, tips not or barely scarious-winged; receptacle bristly, widest at base ..... HESPEREVAX

21' Disk paleae 0 or scales ± gradually reduced, scarious, erect

23. Leaves generally opposite; paleae net-veined, inner edge with scarious wing that is hidden in head; pappus 0 ..... PSILOCARPHUS

23' Leaves alternate or seeming whorled; paleae parallel-veined, scarious wing visible in head; pappus 0 or generally of 1–12 bristles

24. Phyllaries 4–6, equal, scarious, obovate, rounded, abruptly different from paleae; style on inner edge of fruit; receptacle length ± 1–2 × width ..... MICROPUS

24' Phyllaries 0 or 1–4, unequal, vestigial or ± like paleae; style ± at fruit tip; receptacle length ± 3–8 × width ..... STYLOCLINE

18' Phyllaries generally many, overlapping, inner often >= flowers; receptacle epaleate; pistillate flowers not subtended by bracts

25. Pappus 0 or a minute crown ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G5}

25' Pappus of bristles

26. Herbage short-appressed-hairy, glandular, or silky; distal 1/2 of outer phyllaries leathery, scarious margin 0 or narrow ..... PLUCHEA (2)

26' Herbage ± long-hairy (leaf generally densely woolly abaxially); phyllaries thin, membranous, margin scarious distal to middle or throughout, generally wide

27. Shrub or subshrub; stem slender, much-branched ..... PLECOSTACHYS

27' Herb (if subshrub, stem erect or ascending)

28. Plant with creeping rhizome ..... ANAPHALIS (2) {G6}

28' Plant taprooted, fibrous-rooted (sometimes from leafy stolons), or with caudex

29. Heads generally in tight groups in generally spike- or narrow, panicle-like cluster (reduced to terminal cluster in small plants); pappus bristles fused at base, falling in ring ..... GAMOCHAETA

29' Heads in axillary or terminal head-like clusters or in ± open, flat-topped to panicle-like clusters; pappus bristles free or ± fused at base and falling in groups

30. Heads in dense, hemispheric to ± spheric terminal cluster closely subtended by involucre-like ring of leafy bracts, sometimes also in head-like axillary clusters ..... EUCHITON

30' Heads in axillary clusters or terminal clusters, not closely subtended by involucre-like cluster of leafy bracts

31. Annual, 1–30 cm, low-growing; stems generally prostrate or spreading; head clusters ± sessile, axillary or terminal; drying mud, shorelines, other moist habitats ..... GNAPHALIUM

31' Annual to perennial herb, 15–200 cm; stems generally erect or ascending, head clusters generally terminal, sessile to stalked, often branched; generally dry habitats ..... PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM

17' Phyllaries generally green (± purple) throughout, sometimes scarious-margined or inner scarious throughout; heads generally not embedded in woolly hairs

32. Pappus well developed

33. Pappus of flattened scales or barbed awns

34. Leaves generally opposite throughout (occasionally distal-most alternate) ..... LASTHENIA {G12,13}

34' Leaves mostly alternate, sometimes very crowded

35. Plant dotted with sessile resin glands; fruit 3–4-angled ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

35' Plant densely woolly; fruit compressed

36. Leaves entire; pappus scales 2; plant densely tufted; Great Basin Floristic Province ..... EATONELLA {G13}

36' Leaves generally wavy-dentate or shallowly lobed; pappus scales 2–7; plant not densely tufted; s San Joaquin Valley ..... Monolopia congdonii {G12,13}

33' Pappus of bristles

37. Main phyllaries in 1 series, equal ..... SENECIO {G6,15}

37' Main phyllaries in 2+ series

38. Subshrub or shrub

39. Stems ± leafless; receptacle paleate; pappus bristles plumose ..... BEBBIA

39' Stems evidently leafy; receptacle epaleate; pappus bristles ± smooth to barbed

40. Corolla yellow or becoming ± red-purple; leaves generally ± toothed; pistillate flowers 5–18 ..... HAZARDIA

40' Corolla pink to deep rose; leaves entire; pistillate flowers many ..... Pluchea sericea

38' Annual or per

41. Stem thread-like; pistillate flowers 1–5 ..... PENTACHAETA (3) {G12,14,15}

41' Stem stouter; pistillate flowers several to many

42. Pappus bristles 1–2; leaf palmately lobed or toothed ..... Perityle emoryi (2) {G12,13,14}

42' Pappus bristles generally many; leaf entire to pinnately lobed

43. Head ± flat, button-like ..... ERIGERON (2) {G6,14,15}

43' Head generally cylindric, bell-shaped, or ± obconic

44. Disk flower corolla purple; herbage strongly scented; anther bases short-tailed ..... PLUCHEA (2)

44' Disk flower corolla cream or yellow; herbage not strongly scented; anther bases not tailed

45. Disk corolla 9–13 mm ..... Pyrrocoma carthamoides var. cusickii

45' Disk corolla 3–5 mm

46. Leaf not clasping, entire, toothed, or shallowly few-lobed ..... ERIGERON (2) {G6,14,15}

46' Leaf clasping, regularly dentate or spreading-lobed ..... LAENNECIA

32' Pappus 0 or reduced to a minute crown

47. Phyllary margins widely scarious or transparent

48. Delicate annual; pistillate corollas thread-like ..... PENTACHAETA (3) {G12,14,15}

48' Perennial herb or stout annual; pistillate corollas short, wider than thread-like

49. Heads in spikes, racemes, or panicles ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G5}

49' Heads 1 or few to many in ± flat-topped clusters

50. Involucre generally 3–5 mm diam, phyllaries generally 12–20; pappus 0 ..... SPHAEROMERIA

50' Involucre 5–22 mm diam, phyllaries generally 30–60; pappus crown-like, 0.1–0.5+ mm ..... TANACETUM {G12}

47' Phyllary margins generally not scarious or transparent

51. O vary of disk flower much reduced; style tip truncate or tack-shaped

52. Leaf ovate to widely triangular, generally ± basal or proximal cauline, green adaxially, white abaxially; inflorescence open; corolla white; fruit bearing stalked glands ..... ADENOCAULON

52' Leaf linear to (ob)ovate or ± round, basal and cauline or all cauline, faces ± alike, generally green to gray on 1 or both faces; inflorescence ± dense; corolla ± pale yellow, yellow-white, or ± pink; fruit not glandular

53. Anthers fused ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G5}

53' Anthers ± free or only weakly fused

54. Annual; leaf 1–2-pinnately divided ..... Euphrosyne nevadensis

54' Perennial herb or subshrub; leaf generally entire ..... IVA

51' O vary of disk flowers well developed; style tip ± branched

55. Leaf wide, palmately lobed or toothed ..... Perityle emoryi (2) {G12,13,14}

55' Leaf linear to narrowly oblanceolate, entire or pinnately toothed to lobed

56. Plant not glandular, not strongly scented

57. Leaves opposite ..... Lasthenia microglossa

57' Leaves alternate ..... PENTACHAETA (3) {G12,14,15}

56' Plant glandular, ± strongly scented

58. Pappus present ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

58' Pappus 0

59. Fruit of pistillate flower compressed front-to-back ..... HEMIZONELLA {G10}

59' Fruit of pistillate flower compressed side-to-side or ± 3-angled in ×-section ..... MADIA {G10}

Group 3: Heads discoid; receptacle paleate or bearing tooth-like to membranous scales among flowers

1. Leaf margins spiny

2. Heads many-flowered ..... CARTHAMUS {G4,5}

2' Heads 1-flowered, grouped in spheric 2° head ..... [ECHINOPS] {G5,7}

1' Leaf margins not spiny

3. Pappus of bristles, bristles and small scales, or stout needle-like awns

4. Pappus of awns

5. Leaf ± lanceolate, simple, or pinnately compound, leaflets lanceolate to ovate ..... BIDENS {G2,11}

5' Leaf linear or dissected into linear lobes ..... [THELESPERMA]

4' Pappus of bristles or of bristles and small scales

6. Corolla purple; fruit 1–2 per head; herb ..... CRUPINA {G2}

6' Corolla yellow; fruit 18–50 per head; shrub or subshrub

7. Leaf linear to narrowly elliptic or triangular, rough-hairy or becoming glabrous; corolla 6–10 mm; Southwestern California, Desert ..... BEBBIA {G2}

7' Leaf ovate to ± round, tomentose; corolla ± 2.5 mm; Central Coast, South Coast ..... HELICHRYSUM {G6}

3' Pappus 0 or of thin, membranous scales or narrow, scale-like awns

8. Ovary and fruit strongly flattened, long-ciliate

9. Shrub, strigose ..... Encelia frutescens

9' Perennial herb, sticky-glandular ..... Geraea viscida

8' Ovary and fruit ± thick, not ciliate

10. Annual; all or inner phyllaries tapered to long, needle-like tips ..... Chaenactis carphoclinia

10' Biennial to shrub; phyllaries obtuse to acute or acuminate

11. Leaf ± cylindric, lobes many, small ..... [SANTOLINA]

11' Leaf flat, entire to few-lobed

12. Leaf deeply and coarsely pinnately 3–7-lobed, abaxially gray-green-canescent ..... Artemisia palmeri

12' Leaf entire or toothed, abaxially glabrous to short-hairy or ± glandular, green

13. Shrub; leaf ± linear or narrowly oblanceolate ..... EASTWOODIA

13' Perennial herb; leaf elliptic to widely ovate or triangular

14. Receptacle strongly conic or columnar; corolla dark brown-purple ..... Rudbeckia occidentalis

14' Receptacle flat to convex; corolla yellow or orange ..... Wyethia invenusta

Group 4: Heads discoid; receptacle bristly or bearing long, bristle-like scales (free or ± fused at base)

1. Leaves not spiny

2. Phyllaries spine-tipped

3. Phyllary tip-spines hooked ..... ARCTIUM

3' Phyllary tip-spines straight

4. Phyllary tip fringed with spines or slender teeth ..... CENTAUREA (2) {G1,2}

4' Phyllary tip entire, tapered to spine ..... VOLUTARIA {G1}

2' Phyllaries not spine-tipped

5. Phyllary tips (at least inner) ± prominently expanded, ± fringed with short spines or irregular teeth ..... CENTAUREA (2) {G1,2}

5' Phyllary tips not expanded or fringed

6. Proximal leaves linear to oblong or oblanceolate, often lobed or divided; attachment scar of fruit lateral ..... ACROPTILON

6' Proximal leaves lanceolate to triangular, sharply dentate; attachment scar of fruit basal ..... SAUSSUREA {G6}

1' Leaves spiny or spiny-toothed

7. Corolla yellow to orange-red

8. Pappus of many, unequal, narrow scales in several series (sometimes 0), generally 0 on outer fruits; flowers all fertile; fruit 4-angled ..... CARTHAMUS {G3,5}

8' Pappus of 20 stiff bristles or awns in 2 series, on all fruits; outer flowers sterile [corolla 3-lobed; ovary vestigial]; fruit cylindric, 20-ribbed ..... Centaurea benedicta {G2}

7' Corolla white to blue, red, or purple

9. Pappus of long-plumose bristles

10. Largest leaves toothed to deeply lobed; involucre body 1–6 cm diam; receptacle generally not fleshy; phyllaries linear to ovate ..... CIRSIUM

10' Largest leaves often ± compound; involucre body 4–15 cm diam; receptacle fleshy; phyllaries ovate ..... CYNARA

9' Pappus of ± rough or barbed bristles or slender scales

11. Stem spiny-winged ..... CARDUUS

11' Stem not spiny-winged

12. Leaf not blotched along veins; heads not long-peduncled; pappus of many, unequal, narrow scales in several series ..... [Carthamus leucocaulos]

12' Leaf white-blotched along veins; heads long-peduncled; pappus of many long bristles, deciduous in a ring ..... SILYBUM

Group 5: Heads discoid; receptacle epaleate (or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries), not bristly; pappus 0 or reduced to crown

1. Flowers 1–7 per head

2. Leaves coarsely 1–2-pinnately lobed, spiny-margined — heads 1-flowered, grouped in spheric 2° head ..... [ECHINOPS] {G3,7}

2' Leaves entire or toothed

3. Shrub; leaves sometimes forming spines

4. Heads in raceme- or panicle-like cluster; 1° leaves soft, entire or distally (2)3(5)-toothed ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G2}

4' Heads in ± tight head-like cluster; 1° leaves ± persistent as spines

5. Heads 1-flowered, clustered in 2° heads; phyllaries ± 15 in several overlapping series ..... HECASTOCLEIS {G7}

5' Heads 5–6-flowered, short-peduncled in terminal clusters; phyllaries 5–6 in 1 series ..... Tetradymia comosa

3' Herb; leaves never forming spines

6. Herbage glabrous ..... FLAVERIA {G12}

6' Herbage hairy or glandular

7. Plant densely glandular, soft-hairy to bristly, 5–120 cm ..... Madia glomerata

7' Plant not glandular, soft-spreading-hairy to woolly, 1–15 cm

8. Heads ± sessile; plant 1–2.5 cm, tufted, ± woolly ..... Eriophyllum mohavense

8' Heads slender-peduncled; plant 2–15 cm, soft-spreading-hairy ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (3) {G6}

1' Flowers generally 8–many per head — heads not in 2° head

9. Leaves with spine-tipped lobes or teeth ..... CARTHAMUS {G3,4}

9' Leaves not spiny

10. Fruit compressed

11. Annual

12. Proximal leaves 2–4 × dissected ..... Chaenactis artemisiifolia

12' Proximal leaves entire ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (3) {G6}

11' Perennial herb or subshrub

13. Phyllaries in 1 series, weakly fused; leaves long-acuminate ..... PERICOME {G6}

13' Phyllaries in 2–3 series, ± equal, free; leaves not long-acuminate ..... PERITYLE {G6}

10' Fruit not compressed

14. Leaves 1–2 × pinnately dissected

15. Involucre ovoid to hemispheric, ± enclosing flowers; head ± hemispheric; heads many in spike- to panicle-like cluster ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G2}

15' Involucre shallowly cup-like or disk-like; head conic to spheric; heads 1–4 in cyme-like cluster

16. Mature head spheric; herbage strongly pungent-scented; proximal portion of corolla tube sac-like, enclosing top of ovary ..... ONCOSIPHON

16' Mature head ovoid; herbage sweetly scented; proximal portion of corolla tube not enclosing top of ovary ..... MATRICARIA

14' Leaves entire or toothed to shallowly few-lobed

17. Shrub, strongly scented ..... ARTEMISIA (3) {G2}

17' Herb, not or weakly scented

18. Corolla pink to lavender ..... Lessingia arachnoidea

18' Corolla yellow to ± red, red-brown or purple

19. Plant 50–160 cm — heads spheric, many-flowered, long-peduncled, solitary or in open clusters ..... Helenium puberulum

19' Plant 1–15 cm

20. Plant densely woolly; heads ± sessile in leafy clusters at branch tips ..... Eriophyllum pringlei

20' Plant soft-spreading-hairy; heads slender-peduncled ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (3) {G6}

Group 6: Heads discoid; receptacle epaleate (or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries), not bristly; pappus of bristles

1. Leaves and phyllaries dotted or streaked with embedded, translucent oil glands, otherwise glabrous; plant strongly pungent-scented ..... POROPHYLLUM

1' Leaves and phyllaries without embedded, translucent oil glands (sometimes stalked- or sessile-glandular, or resin-gland-dotted); plant scented or not

2. Shrub or subshrub (if perennial herb, pappus of 1–2 bristles + crown of scales)

3. Corolla white or cream to dull purple or ± green

4. Ovaries very reduced, sterile; style included ..... BACCHARIS {G2}

4' Ovaries forming fruits; style often exserted

5. Fruit 10-ribbed ..... BRICKELLIA (2)

5' Fruit 5-ribbed

6. Leaf sessile, narrowly linear, entire ..... Ericameria albida

6' Leaf sessile or petioled, blade diamond-shaped to lanceolate, elliptic, ovate or triangular, generally toothed

7. Petiole >> leaf blade; pappus of bristles and short scales ..... PLEUROCORONIS {G7}

7' Petiole 0 or generally <= blade; pappus of bristles only

8. Perennial herb or subshrub; leaves serrate, opposite throughout or distal alternate ..... AGERATINA (2)

8' Shrub — rigidly branched; leaves spiny-toothed, alternate throughout ..... Hazardia brickellioides

3' Corolla yellow to orange

9. Pappus bristles 1–2

10. Leaf blade 3–12 cm, petiole 1.5–5 cm; phyllaries in 1 series, weakly fused ..... PERICOME (2) {G5}

10' Leaf blade generally < 2.5 cm, petiole <= 0.6 cm; phyllaries in 2–3 equal series, free ..... PERITYLE {G5}

9' Pappus bristles 18–many

11. Involucre hemispheric to ± spheric; phyllaries elliptic or widely ovate ..... Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus {G7}

11' Involucre generally cylindric to bell-shaped or obconic (hemispheric); phyllaries linear to narrowly ovate

12. Phyllaries in 1–2 series, ± equal

13. Phyllaries 9–18; plant glabrous, resinous-glandular; flowers 12–21 ..... PEUCEPHYLLUM

13' Phyllaries 4–6; plant ± woolly; flowers 4–8 ..... TETRADYMIA

12' Phyllaries graduated in several series, unequal

14. Leaves (at least distal) scale-like

15. Heads in panicle-like clusters; fruit ± glabrous ..... Lepidospartum squamatum

15' Heads solitary; fruit appressed-hairy ..... Leucosyris carnosa

14' Leaves linear to oblong, (ob)ovate, or ± round

16. Leaves toothed

17. Corolla throat expanded gradually above tube ..... HAZARDIA {G15}

17' Corolla throat expanded abruptly above tube ..... ISOCOMA (2)

16' Leaves entire

18. Phyllaries in 5 ± distinct vertical ranks

19. Young stem densely tomentose, hairs often tightly matted ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

19' Young stem glabrous or puberulent

20. Leaves glandless or glands, if present, not in deep, round pits ..... CHRYSOTHAMNUS (2)

20' Leaves gland-dotted, glands in deep, round pits ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

18' Phyllaries not in distinct vertical ranks

21. Stem ± tomentose

22. Phyllary tips thin, papery, ascending to ± spreading, creamy white; corolla ± 2.5 mm ..... HELICHRYSUM {G3}

22' Phyllary margins thick, generally appressed or stiffly ascending, generally green; corolla 5–12.5 mm

23. Phyllaries acuminate ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

23' Phyllaries obtuse to acute

24. Stem loosely tomentose; pappus 3–5 mm ..... Isocoma menziesii

24' Stem closely tomentose except glabrous ribs; pappus 8–11 mm ..... Lepidospartum latisquamum

21' Stem glabrous or ± hairy but not tomentose

25. Corolla throat expanded abruptly above tube ..... ISOCOMA (2)

25' Corolla throat expanded gradually above tube

26. Leaves gland-dotted in deep, round pits ..... ERICAMERIA (4) {G15}

26' Leaves glandless or glands, if present, not in deep, round pits

27. Involucre 5–10 mm ..... CHRYSOTHAMNUS (2)

27' Involucre 10–17.5 mm

28. Leaves 30–85 mm, ± lanceolate; fruit glabrous; s White and Inyo Mountains, n Desert Mountains ..... CUNICULOTINUS

28' Leaves 5–15 mm, linear; fruit appressed-hairy; s Klamath Ranges, n High North Coast Ranges ..... Ericameria ophitidis

2' Herb

29. Corollas white to maroon or purple

30. Leaves and phyllaries spiny ..... ONOPORDUM

30' Leaves and phyllaries not spiny

31. Pappus bristles 2–6

32. Leaves oblong to ovate, toothed; involucre widely bell-shaped to hemispheric; wet places, Great Central Valley, South Coast ..... TRICHOCORONIS

32' Leaves linear, generally entire; involucre cylindric to narrowly bell-shaped

33. Corolla 5–6 mm; Sonoran Desert ..... MALPERIA {G7}

33' Corolla 2–3 mm; North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Western California ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (2) {G5}

31' Pappus bristles generally >> 6

34. Phyllaries ± equal, in 1–2 series

35. Flowers 10–many; perennial herb; pappus bristles simple ..... AGERATINA (2)

35' Flowers 2(3); annual; pappus bristles plumose ..... DIMERESIA

34' Phyllaries unequal, graduated in several series

36. Annual; outer corollas often bilateral, ± ray-like ..... LESSINGIA (2) {G1}

36' Perennial herb; corollas all radial

37. Herbage glabrous, sticky ..... Baccharis glutinosa

37' Herbage puberulent to tomentose

38. Leaves entire; involucre 3–9 mm; flowers unisexual — plants dioecious ..... ANTENNARIA (2)

38' Leaves sharply toothed; involucre 10–15 mm; flowers bisexual

39. Corollas cream, lobes ± deltate; style branches long, club-shaped ..... BRICKELLIA (2)

39' Corollas white to generally ± purple, lobes linear; style branches short, oblong ..... SAUSSUREA {G4}

29' Corollas yellow to orange or red

40. Phyllaries in 2–several series, unequal, often strongly graduated

41. Phyllaries thin-membranous, white to pink or red

42. Stem from rhizome; leaf rosette withered at flower; cauline leaves long, all except distal-most ± equal ..... ANAPHALIS {G2}

42' Stem from persistent leaf rosette or thick, often branched caudex; cauline leaves generally ± reduced, at least distal-most short, 1–3 cm ..... ANTENNARIA {G2}

41' Phyllaries not thin-membranous, not white

43. Plant low, mounded, densely gray-woolly, strongly scented; leaves often wider than long; phyllaries in 2 series, outer phyllaries wide, tips spreading ..... PSATHYROTES (2)

43' Plant spreading to erect, generally not densely woolly, scented or not; leaves generally longer than wide; phyllaries in 3–several series

44. Pappus bristles flat, readily deciduous; involucre gummy ..... GRINDELIA {G7,13,15}

44' Pappus bristles ± cylindric, ± persistent; involucre generally not gummy

45. Annual

46. Outer-flower corollas ± bilateral, often enlarged, ± ray-like ..... LESSINGIA (2) {G1}

46' Outer-flower corollas radial

47. Plant 10–50 cm; phyllaries generally in 3–5 series ..... Dieteria canescens var. shastensis (2)

47' Plant 2–6 cm; phyllaries in 2–3 series ..... Pentachaeta exilis {G5}

45' Perennial herb — outer-flower corollas radial, not enlarged

48. Phyllary tips spreading

49. Leaves lanceolate to triangular; corollas creamy yellow ..... Brickellia grandiflora

49' Leaves linear to ± obovate; corollas bright yellow ..... Dieteria canescens var. shastensis (2)

48' Phyllary tips generally appressed (lowest sometimes spreading)

50. Leaves linear to narrowly oblong; disk wide, button-like ..... ERIGERON (2) {G2,14,15}

50' Leaves linear to ovate; disk ± narrow

51. Hairs smooth; various habitats ..... EUCEPHALUS {G14}

51' Hairs minutely knobby (at 20×); generally dry streambanks, gravel bars ..... Heterotheca oregona

40' Phyllaries in 1–2 series, ± equal

52. Pappus bristles ± plumose

53. Leaves all or mostly basal ..... RAILLARDELLA {G7,10}

53' Some or all leaves cauline

54. Phyllaries in 2 series; pappus bristles ± plumose ..... ARNICA (2) {G15}

54' Phyllaries or phyllary-like paleae in 1 series; pappus bristles plumose

55. Glandless hairs restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... Anisocarpus scabridus {G7}

55' Glandless hairs not restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... CARLQUISTIA {G7}

52' Pappus bristles smooth or barbed

56. Cauline leaves opposite (distal-most sometimes alternate)

57. Pappus bristles many; phyllaries in 2 series, free ..... ARNICA (2) {G15}

57' Pappus bristles 1–2; phyllaries in 1 series, fused at base ..... PERICOME (2) {G5}

56' Cauline leaves alternate

58. Annual or short-lived perennial herb with slender taproot

59. Main phyllaries in 1 series, outer, if present, << inner ..... SENECIO (2) {G2,15}

59' Main phyllaries in 1–2 series, ± equal

60. Leaf thread-like to linear ..... Pentachaeta exilis subsp. exilis (2) {G5}

60' Leaf oblanceolate to ovate or wider

61. Pappus bristles ± free; heads short-peduncled; leaves entire or blunt-toothed ..... PSATHYROTES (2)

61' Pappus bristles fused at base in 5 groups; heads long-peduncled; leaves sharply toothed or lobed ..... TRICHOPTILIUM {G1}

58' Perennial herb, often with caudex or rhizome

62. Leaves palmately veined and lobed

63. Plant ± erect ..... CACALIOPSIS

63' Plant a twining vine ..... DELAIREA

62' Leaves pinnately veined (or lateral veins obscure), entire to pinnately lobed

64. Pappus double, outer pappus of minute bristles or scales ..... ERIGERON (2) {G2,14,15}

64' Pappus single (double, bristles ± equal)

65. Leaves densely white-tomentose abaxially; corollas creamy yellow ..... LUINA

65' Leaves glabrous to loosely tomentose abaxially; corollas yellow

66. Distal leaf blades 1.5–4 cm; phyllary tips green or red ..... PACKERA {G15}

66' Distal leaf blades 6–25 cm; phyllary tips black or green ..... SENECIO (2) {G2,15}

Group 7: Heads discoid; receptacle epaleate (or paleae only marginal and simulating phyllaries), not bristly; pappus of scales or awns

1. Heads ± sessile, sometimes in dense 2° clusters

2. Heads 1-flowered, in dense 2° heads; plant ± spiny

3. Herb, 10–20 dm, stout, erect; leaves large, 1–2-pinnately lobed, spiny-margined; 2° heads spheric ..... [ECHINOPS] {G3,5}

3' Shrub, 4–7 dm; leaves small, spine-tipped, margins weakly spiny; 2° heads not spheric, ± concealed by veiny bracts ..... HECASTOCLEIS {G5}

2' Heads 3–20-flowered, solitary or clustered; plant not spiny

4. Leaf tips generally 3-lobed; pappus not falling in a ring ..... ERIOPHYLLUM {G12,13}

4' Leaf tips entire; pappus falling in a ring ..... OROCHAENACTIS

1' Heads peduncled

5. Phyllaries unequal, graduated in 2–many series, outer << inner

6. Pappus of short scales alternating with longer awns or bristles

7. Annual; leaves linear, generally entire ..... MALPERIA {G6}

7' Perennial herb or subshrub; leaves lanceolate to ± diamond-shaped, generally few-toothed ..... PLEUROCORONIS {G6}

6' Pappus of readily deciduous awns or narrow, bristle-like scales, or of scales that are ± dissected into bristles

8. Shrub; phyllary tips appressed ..... Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus {G6}

8' Herb; phyllary tips often spreading to recurved

9. Involucre gummy; pappus awns readily deciduous ..... GRINDELIA {G6,13,15}

9' Involucre hairy or glandular; pappus scales often ± dissected into bristles ..... LESSINGIA {G1,6}

5' Phyllaries or phyllary-like paleae ± equal (or outer > inner), in 1–3 series

10. Head ± spheric; leaves decurrent ..... HELENIUM {G12,13}

10' Head cylindric to hemispheric; leaves not decurrent

11. Phyllary margins ± scarious, white to yellow, red, or purple

12. Pappus scales bristle-tipped; corollas cream to white or purple-tinged ..... HYMENOTHRIX {G1}

12' Pappus scales obtuse to acute; corollas generally yellow

13. Annual; pappus scales generally 8 ..... BAHIA

13' Perennial herb; pappus scales 12–22 ..... HYMENOPAPPUS

11' Phyllary or phyllary-like palea margins not evidently scarious, generally ± green

14. Corollas white to purple

15. Fruit 3–9 mm; pappus scale midrib 0; leaves often toothed or lobed ..... CHAENACTIS {G1}

15' Fruit 10–15 mm; pappus scale midrib well developed; leaves entire ..... PALAFOXIA {G1}

14' Corollas yellow

16. Outer corollas ± bilateral, much enlarged, ray-like; pappus scales entire or toothed ..... Chaenactis glabriuscula

16' Outer corollas generally radial, not or only slightly enlarged; pappus scales plumose or dissected into bristles

17. Annual or short-lived perennial herb; rhizome 0

18. Leaf teeth and lobes blunt; involucre densely glandular; pappus scales plumose ..... Layia discoidea

18' Leaf teeth and lobes sharp; involucre not glandular; pappus scales dissected into bristles ..... TRICHOPTILIUM {G1,6}

17' Perennial herb with rhizome

19. Leaves mostly or all basal ..... RAILLARDELLA {G6,10}

19' Leaves basal and cauline, well distributed on stem

20. Glandless hairs restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... Anisocarpus scabridus {G6}

20' Glandless hairs not restricted to margins of phyllary-like paleae ..... CARLQUISTIA {G6}

Group 8: Heads liguliflorous; all flowers of head with petal-like, 5-lobed ligules; corollas generally readily withering; sap generally milky

1. Receptacle with long paleae among flowers

2. Leaves mostly cauline, spiny, thistle-like; paleae wide, individually enclosing and falling with fruits ..... SCOLYMUS

2' Leaves mostly or all basal, not spiny; paleae narrow, membranous, not enclosing fruits

3. Peduncle bracted; scape branched or unbranched ..... HYPOCHAERIS

3' Peduncle bractless; scape unbranched

4. Pappus bristles not longer on 1 side of fruits, ± minutely barbed; phyllary margins not wide and papery ..... AGOSERIS (2)

4' Pappus bristles much longer on 1 side of all fruits, plumose; phyllary margins papery, much wider than midrib ..... ANISOCOMA (2)

1' Receptacle epaleate (sometimes bristly or minutely scaly)

5. Pappus 0 (or occasionally low crown in Phalacroseris)

6. Heads solitary; stem leafless ..... PHALACROSERIS

6' Heads few to many in cyme-like or panicle-like inflorescence; stem often leafy

7. Outer fruits 10–15 mm, rigidly spreading, individually enfolded by inner phyllaries ..... RHAGADIOLUS

7' Outer fruit 3–5 mm, generally straight (curved), not individually enfolded by phyllaries

8. Leaves mostly basal; corolla white; Desert ..... ATRICHOSERIS

8' Leaves mostly cauline; corolla yellow; Northwestern California, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Southwestern California ..... LAPSANA

5' Pappus present

9. Corolla blue

10. Pappus of short scales ..... CICHORIUM

10' Pappus of long bristles ..... LACTUCA (2)

9' Corolla yellow or white to purple

11. Pappus of scales, stiff awns (sometimes with shorter bristles), or awn-tipped scales, not plumose (except Microseris nutans, Microseris sylvatica, inner fruit pappus of Leontodon)

12. Outer fruits often enfolded by phyllaries; pappus of outer and inner fruits dissimilar

13. Leaves basal and cauline; peduncle thickened below fruit head; inner fruit pappus bristles minutely barbed ..... HEDYPNOIS

13' Leaves basal; peduncle not or scarcely thickened; inner fruit pappus bristles plumose ..... LEONTODON (3)

12' Outer fruits generally not enfolded by phyllaries; pappus of outer and inner fruits ± alike

14. Corolla pink to ± white; stem much-branched — cauline leaves short, linear, entire ..... CHAETADELPHA

14' Corolla white to yellow or orange; stem branches 0–few

15. Outer phyllaries long, linear; pappus scales stiff, bristle-like ..... TOLPIS

15' Outer phyllaries <= inner, generally wider than linear (if linear, short); pappus scales few to many, bristle-tipped

16. Perennial herb, scapose; rosette leaves entire, narrow, long-tapered; heads erect; pappus scales 10–30, narrowly lanceolate, silvery, bristle-tip not plumose ..... Nothocalais troximoides

16' Annual or perennial herb, scapose or not; leaves entire to lobed; pappus scales 1–many, silvery to ± black, bristle-tip smooth, barbed, or plumose

17. Annual; head erect; involucre glabrous, outer phyllaries not < 1/4 inner; pappus scales 5, lanceolate, silvery, bristle short, smooth, from evenly notched scale tip ..... UROPAPPUS

17' Annual or perennial herb; head ± nodding in bud; involucre glabrous to hairy, outer phyllaries often < 1/4 inner; pappus scales 1–30, variously colored, tip entire to unevenly cut, bristle from tip smooth to plumose

18. Perennial herb with fleshy taproot(s); ligules >> involucre; pappus scales 5–30 ..... MICROSERIS (3)

18' Annual; ligules ± = involucre; pappus scales 5 (often < 5 in Microseris douglasii)

19. Head generally strongly nodding in bud; pappus scales generally deltate to ovate (if lanceolate, tapered to bristle); leaves basal ..... MICROSERIS (3)

19' Head generally not strongly nodding in bud; pappus scales narrowly lanceolate, tip notched or irregularly cut; cauline leaves sometimes present ..... STEBBINSOSERIS

11' Pappus of simple bristles or of ± plumose bristles or awns

20. Pappus bristles or awns plumose

21. Pappus bristles wide at base, scale-like ..... MICROSERIS (3)

21' Pappus of bristle or awns, slender or thick at base, not scale-like

22. Pappus bristles very unequal

23. Pappus bristles much longer on 1 side of all fruits; phyllary margins papery, much wider than midrib ..... ANISOCOMA (2)

23' Outer fruit pappus of short scales, inner fruit pappus of long and short bristles; phyllary margins not wide and papery ..... LEONTODON (3)

22' Pappus bristles ± equal

24. Leaves linear to lanceolate or ovate-elliptic, grass-like, entire or few-toothed; involucre 2.5–5 cm

25. Perennial herb; phyllary series several; fruit beak 0 ..... SCORZONERA

25' Annual or biennial; phyllary series 1; fruit beak > body ..... TRAGOPOGON

24' Leaves lanceolate to elliptic (or scale-like), larger leaves ± toothed or lobed; involucre 0.5–2 cm

26. Corollas white to pink or lavender

27. Fruit beaked; corollas white or cream, sometimes red-veined ..... RAFINESQUIA

27' Fruit beak 0; corollas pink to pale lavender ..... STEPHANOMERIA

26' Corollas yellow

28. Leaves in basal rosette; heads generally 1 on scapose peduncle — outer phyllaries inconspicuous ..... LEONTODON (3)

28' Leaves basal and cauline, or basal 0 at flower; heads 1–many, not on scapose peduncle

29. Phyllaries in 2 series, outer wide, free, inner narrow ..... HELMINTHOTHECA

29' Phyllaries in 1 series, wide, bases slightly fused ..... UROSPERMUM

20' Pappus bristles smooth or barbed, stiff or soft

30. Fruit ± compressed

31. Fruit beaked (beak sometimes short, thick) ..... LACTUCA (2)

31' Fruit beak 0 ..... SONCHUS

30' Fruit not compressed

32. Stem much-branched

33. Stem thorny; corollas pink or lavender to red-purple (white) ..... PLEIACANTHUS

33' Stem not thorny; corollas yellow or white to light pink

34. Flowers 3–4 per head, corollas white or light pink; annual, 5–30 cm ..... PRENANTHELLA

34' Flowers 6–60 per head, corollas white or yellow; biennial or perennial herb, 10–150 cm

35. Fruit beaked ..... CHONDRILLA

35' Fruit beak 0 ..... HIERACIUM (2)

32' Stem little-branched, not thorny; corolla yellow, white, lavender, or rosy to ± purple

36. Shrub; s Channel Islands (San Clemente Island) ..... MUNZOTHAMNUS

36' Herb

37. Fruit widely cylindric or base ± narrowed, not beaked

38. Some or all pappus bristles falling from fruit — long glandless hairs 0 ..... MALACOTHRIX (2)

38' Pappus bristles persistent

39. Plant long-hairy, especially below; heads few to many; stem generally branched ..... HIERACIUM (2)

39' Plant glabrous or minutely puberulent; heads solitary on scapose peduncle

40. Annual; pappus bristle 5 or fewer ..... Microseris douglasii

40' Perennial herb; pappus bristles > 20

41. Pappus bristles ± brown, barbed ..... Microseris borealis

41' Pappus bristles white, smooth ..... Nothocalais alpestris (2)

37' Fruit tapered at both ends (or distally), often beaked

42. Pappus bristles deciduous, sometimes a few persistent

43. Fruit not beaked ..... MALACOTHRIX (2)

43' Fruit short-beaked

44. Fruit tapered to beak; leaf margins not hard ..... CALYCOSERIS

44' Fruit abruptly beaked; leaf margins white, hard ..... GLYPTOPLEURA

42' Pappus bristles persistent

45. Stem branched, leafy (leaves often reduced); beak present or 0 ..... CREPIS

45' Stem unbranched, leafless (except some annual Agoseris)

46. Phyllaries unequal, outer << inner, inner equal; fruit beak long, slender ..... TARAXACUM

46' Phyllaries equal or ± graduated in several series; fruit beak 0 or short to long, slender to stout

47. Plant generally ± hairy; outer phyllaries generally < inner, often striped ± purple, speckled or not ..... AGOSERIS (2)

47' Plant ± glabrous (or petioles ciliate); outer phyllaries ± = inner, finely speckled purple — Klamath Ranges, n&c High Sierra Nevada ..... Nothocalais alpestris (2)

Group 9: All flowers of head with 2-lipped corollas

1. Perennial herb; corolla white to pink-purple; South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California ..... ACOURTIA

1' Shrub; corolla yellow; Desert ..... TRIXIS

Group 10: Heads radiate; phyllaries in 1(2) series, individually subtending ray flowers; receptacle paleate (at least between ray and disk flowers)

1. Phyllary margins ± flat, not clasping or enclosing ray ovaries

2. Pappus 2–4 mm, of plumose bristles ..... Layia hieracioides

2' Pappus 0 or < 1 mm, of scales or awns

3. Leaves woolly; ray corollas thin, deciduous; receptacle center with 1–6 palea-like scales ..... Eriophyllum ambiguum var. paleaceum

3' Leaves scabrous; ray corollas leathery, persistent; receptacle paleate throughout, paleae awn-tipped ..... SANVITALIA

1' Phyllary margins folded, ± clasping or enclosing ray ovaries

4. Mature ray fruit compressed front-to-back, adaxial face generally ± covered by phyllary margins

5. Disk flowers 1(2); annual 1–20 cm ..... HEMIZONELLA {G2}

5' Disk flowers 3–120+; annual or perennial herb 2–150 cm

6. Perennial herb, rhizomed; disk corolla white ..... HOLOZONIA

6' Annual; disk corolla yellow (sometimes aging ± red)

7. Pappus of 10 obtuse scales, 3–13 mm; fruit 10-ribbed ..... ACHYRACHAENA

7' Pappus 0 or of awns, bristles, or acute scales, 0.5–7 mm; fruit not ribbed

8. Ray flowers 5; disk flowers 6, staminate; pappus 0 ..... LAGOPHYLLA

8' Ray flowers 3–27; disk flowers 5–125, bisexual; pappus of (0)1–32 awns, bristles, or scales ..... LAYIA

4' Mature ray fruit compressed side-to-side or ± 3-angled or round in ×-section, adaxial face covered by phyllary margins or not

9. Disk flower style bristly-puberulent proximal to minutely notched tip ..... BLEPHARIPAPPUS

9' Disk flower style glabrous proximal to tapered branches

10. Perennial herb; leaves all or mostly basal, cauline 0 or proximal, few; disk pappus of narrowly awl-shaped or ± bristle-like, ciliate-plumose scales ..... RAILLARDELLA {G6,7}

10' Annual, leafy-stemmed perennial herb, or subshrub to shrub; disk pappus 0 or of scales, often not awl-shaped or bristle-like and ciliate-plumose

11. Distal leaves and peduncle bracts generally spine-tipped; disk flowers staminate, most or all subtended by paleae ..... CENTROMADIA

11' Distal leaves and peduncle bracts not spine-tipped; disk flowers bisexual or staminate, outermost to all subtended by paleae

12. Rays yellow, sometimes proximally ± red; ray fruit generally compressed side-to-side or ± 3-angled in ×-section, abaxially rounded, adaxially ± 2-faced, angle between adaxial faces 15–70°; peduncle bracts not tipped by pit- or tack-gland

13. Disk pappus 0 ..... MADIA {G2}

13' Disk pappus of 5–21 wide to bristle-like scales

14. Perennial herb

15. Anthers yellow to ± brown; ray fruit short-beaked; involucre bell-shaped, ellipsoid, or spheric ..... ANISOCARPUS

15' Anthers ± dark purple; ray fruit beak 0; involucre bell-shaped to hemispheric ..... KYHOSIA

14' Annual

16. Anthers ± yellow to ± brown ..... HARMONIA (2)

16' Anthers ± dark purple ..... JENSIA

12' Rays yellow, white, or rose; ray fruit round in ×-section or nearly so (except ± flattened adaxially) or ± 3-angled [abaxially generally ± widely 2-faced, angle between those faces generally 90+°, adaxially generally ± flattened to slightly bulging]; peduncle bracts sometimes tipped by pit- or tack-gland

17. Ray fruit ± completely enfolded by a phyllary; rays yellow, sometimes ± red at base

18. Disk pappus of fringed or plumose scales ..... HARMONIA (2)

18' Disk pappus 0 ..... Madia anomala

17' Ray fruit generally partly enfolded by a phyllary, adaxial face exposed; rays yellow, white, or rose

19. Annual; leaves ± linear, generally narrowly so; ray corolla lobed (1/4)1/3–3/4+ length, lobes often spreading; peduncle bracts generally tack-gland-tipped (except in Osmadenia, ray lobes widely spreading); disk fruit not strongly ribbed

20. Ray fruit beak 0; tack glands present ..... CALYCADENIA

20' Ray fruit short-beaked; tack glands 0 ..... OSMADENIA

19' Annual or subshrub to shrub; leaves linear or wider; ray corolla lobed generally 1/10–1/2 length, lobes ± parallel; peduncle bracts not tack-gland-tipped unless fruits 10-ribbed

21. Ray generally white or yellow, often abaxially red- or purple-veined; ray fruit beak 0 or inconspicuous, straight

22. Paleae restricted to outermost disk flowers; disk flowers bisexual; ray fruit hairy ..... BLEPHARIZONIA

22' Paleae throughout receptacle, subtending all disk flowers; disk flowers staminate; ray fruit glabrous ..... HEMIZONIA

21' Ray yellow, not abaxially purple-veined; ray fruit beak adaxial, ascending

23. Annual or subshrub to shrub; peduncle bracts not pit-gland-tipped; if annual, paleae subtending only outermost disk flowers ..... DEINANDRA

23' Annual; peduncle bracts pit-gland-tipped; paleae throughout receptacle, subtending all or most disk flowers ..... HOLOCARPHA

Group 11: Heads radiate; phyllary series 2 or more, none or only some individually subtending ray flowers; receptacle paleate, generally ± throughout (only between ray and disk flowers in Rigiopappus)

1. Rays white to pink or purple

2. Disk corollas white or pink

3. Leaves finely dissected, aromatic; heads many in flat-topped clusters; rays ovate to round ..... ACHILLEA

3' Leaves entire or toothed, not aromatic; heads solitary or in small cymes; rays narrowly linear ..... ECLIPTA

2' Disk corollas yellow

4. Leaves entire or toothed

5. Leaves opposite, ± ovate ..... GALINSOGA

5' Leaves alternate, linear or lance-linear to narrowly oblanceolate ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

4' Leaves pinnately lobed or dissected to compound

6. Phyllaries in 2 very different series [inner ± membranous]

7. Leaves pinnate; leaflets flat, serrate; rays short, inconspicuous ..... Bidens pilosa

7' Leaves 1–3-pinnately dissected, segments narrowly linear, entire; rays long, conspicuous ..... COSMOS

6' Phyllaries graduated in 2–several series, unequal, margins scarious or transparent

8. Fruit initially hairy, densely tomentose in age ..... LASIOSPERMUM

8' Fruit glabrous

9. Base of corolla narrow ..... ANTHEMIS

9' Base of corolla wide, enclosing fruit tip ..... CHAMAEMELUM

1' Rays yellow to orange (sometimes multi-colored)

10. Paleae flat, linear to ovate, not folded around disk ovaries

11. Phyllaries ± alike, in 2+ series

12. Phyllaries graduated in several series, unequal, margins scarious or transparent — pappus crown-like, generally 0.2–0.3 mm ..... [COTA]

12' Phyllaries not strongly graduated, ± equal, margins not scarious or transparent (except inner phyllaries of Rigiopappus)

13. Leaves oblong to ovate, entire to pinnately lobed; pappus scales awn-tipped ..... [GAILLARDIA] {G13}

13' Leaves linear, entire; pappus scales stiff, tapered ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G12,13}

11' Phyllaries in 2 very different series, outer with leaf-like texture, inner ± membranous

14. Pappus of awns with reflexed barbs ..... BIDENS {G2,3}

14' Pappus 0 or of flat scales

15. Leaves alternate or all basal; ray flowers fertile ..... LEPTOSYNE

15' Leaves opposite; ray flowers sterile ..... COREOPSIS

10' Paleae each folded around a disk flower ovary

16. Ray flowers fruiting [style present, ovary well developed]

17. Annual; disk fruit compressed, winged ..... Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata

17' Perennial herb; disk fruit generally 4-angled

18. Leaves mostly ± basal, cauline 0 or few; pappus 0 ..... BALSAMORHIZA

18' Leaves basal and cauline; pappus of scales or 0 ..... WYETHIA

16' Ray flowers sterile [vary vestigial, style generally 0]

19. Fruit strongly compressed, margin ± thin

20. Fruit margin ciliate

21. Subshrub or shrub ..... ENCELIA

21' Annual or perennial herb (sometimes with woody caudex)

22. Leaves all ± basal, gray or silvery, entire ..... ENCELIOPSIS (2)

22' Leaves mostly cauline, green, entire or toothed ..... Geraea canescens

20' Fruit margin not ciliate

23. Leaves all ± basal, silvery or gray; fruit margin corky ..... ENCELIOPSIS (2)

23' Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline, green; fruit margin thin or winged

24. Perennial herb; leaves basal and cauline, entire ..... HELIANTHELLA

24' Subshrub; leaves cauline, some often toothed ..... Verbesina dissita

19' Fruit weakly compressed or not, margin generally not thin

25. Receptacle widely cylindric to conic or ± spheric; disk corollas yellow-green or dark brown-purple

26. Involucre at early flower 8–16 mm diam; fruit compressed, ciliate abaxially — phyllary series unequal, outer >> inner ..... RATIBIDA

26' Involucre at early flower 15–30+ mm diam; fruit not compressed, not ciliate abaxially ..... RUDBECKIA

25' Receptacle generally flat to convex, if conic, disk corollas yellow or yellow-orange

27. Pappus 0 ..... HELIOMERIS

27' Pappus present

28. Herb (subshrub); pappus scales generally readily deciduous ..... HELIANTHUS

28' Subshrub or shrub; pappus scales persistent or readily deciduous (if subshrub, pappus persistent)

29. Leaf oblong or narrowly lanceolate to ovate or triangular, base obtuse or rounded to truncate or cordate ..... BAHIOPSIS

29' Leaf elliptic to widely obovate, base tapered, wedge-shaped ..... VIGUIERA

Group 12: Heads radiate; receptacle epaleate; pappus 0 or a low crown

1. Leaves opposite, at least proximally

2. Distal leaves opposite

3. Phyllaries in 3+ series, widely overlapping; perennial herb, fleshy, coastal ..... JAUMEA

3' Phyllaries in 1–2 series, barely overlapping; annual or perennial herb, generally not fleshy, coastal or interior

4. Plant white-hairy and sessile-glandular; old ray corolla papery, persistent on fruit when dry; disk flowers staminate ..... Arnica dealbata

4' Plant glabrous or ± hairy; old ray corolla deciduous from fruit; disk flowers generally fruiting

5. Ray flower generally 1 per head; ray < 1 mm ..... FLAVERIA {G5}

5' Ray flowers 4–many; ray generally >> 1 mm

6. Leaf margin without embedded oil glands, base not bristly-ciliate; herbage generally not scented; spring-flowering ..... LASTHENIA (2) {G2,13}

6' Leaf margin with embedded oil glands, base bristly-ciliate; herbage strongly scented; summer/fall-flowering ..... PECTIS {G13,15}

2' Distal leaves alternate

7. Ray white

8. Ray not red-veined abaxially; e San Francisco Bay Area, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... Eriophyllum wallacei (2)

8' Ray red-veined abaxially; Inner South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains ..... Syntrichopappus lemmonii (2)

7' Ray yellow

9. Ray corolla with small lobe opposite ray ..... MONOLOPIA (2)

9' Ray corolla without small lobe opposite ray

10. Leaves mostly or all opposite ..... LASTHENIA (2) {G2,13}

10' Leaves mostly alternate

11. Leaves glabrous ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G2,13}

11' Leaves ± tomentose ..... ERIOPHYLLUM (2) {G7,13}

1' Leaves alternate throughout or in rosettes

12. Ray <= 1 mm

13. Shrub ..... Artemisia bigelovii

13' Herb

14. Leaf finely dissected; phyllaries unequal, overlapping in several series, scarious-margined ..... TANACETUM (2) {G2}

14' Leaf entire to ± lobed; phyllaries ± equal, in 1–3 series, margins barely scarious or not (widely scarious in Pentachaeta)

15. Phyllaries in 2–3 series; leaves linear, entire ..... PENTACHAETA (2) {G2,14,15}

15' Phyllaries in 1 series; proximal leaves often toothed or lobed

16. Plant glabrous or sticky-glandular; fruit 1.5–2 mm ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS (2) {G2,13}

16' Plant ± woolly; fruit 2.5–3 mm ..... Monolopia congdonii {G2,13}

12' Ray > 1 mm

18. Ray white to purple (sometimes multi-colored)

19. Phyllaries unequal, in 2+ series, generally conspicuously overlapping, generally scarious-margined

20. Subshrub — ray fruit 1–3-winged ..... ARGYRANTHEMUM

20' Herb

21. Leaf 1–3-pinnately dissected; heads few to many in rounded to ± flat-topped clusters

22. Ultimate leaf segments flat ..... Tanacetum parthenium {G13}

22' Ultimate leaf segments thread-like

23. Herbage strongly scented; fruit obconic, weakly compressed or ± round in ×-section, faintly 5-ribbed, glandular between ribs, ribs without embedded resin glands ..... Matricaria chamomilla

23' Herbage not scented; fruit 3-angled, ± compressed, 3–5-ribbed, minutely roughened between ribs, 2–3 ribs distally with embedded resin glands ..... TRIPLEUROSPERMUM

21' Leaf entire, serrate, or pinnately lobed; heads solitary or few in open, cyme-like cluster

24. Perennial herb; heads 6–9 cm diam ..... LEUCANTHEMUM

24' Annual; heads 2.5–4(5.5) cm diam

25. Outer phyllary margins and tips not scarious; ray adaxially uniformly pale yellow or with darker yellow proximal band, abaxially steely blue; fruit densely woolly ..... Arctotheca calendula

25' Outer phyllary margins and tips scarious; ray adaxially and abaxially white (aging pink), proximally yellow; fruit faces glabrous ..... [MAURANTHEMUM]

19' Phyllaries ± equal, in 1–2 series, generally little overlapping, generally not scarious-margined

26. Ray 25–40 mm; coarse perennial herb or subshrub ..... DIMORPHOTHECA (2)

26' Ray < 10 mm; annual or slender per

27. Leaf widely ovate, coarsely dentate or palmately lobed, abruptly petioled ..... Perityle emoryi {G2,13,14}

27' Leaf linear to obovate, entire to pinnately lobed (tip sometimes 3-lobed), sessile or tapered to petiole

28. Proximal leaves pinnately lobed ..... BLENNOSPERMA (2)

28' Leaves entire, toothed, or 3-lobed

29. Perennial herb; moist habitats ..... BELLIS

29' Annual; dry habitats

30. Plant tomentose or becoming glabrous

31. Ray not red-veined abaxially; e San Francisco Bay Area, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... Eriophyllum wallacei (2)

31' Ray red-veined abaxially; Inner South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains ..... Syntrichopappus lemmonii (2)

30' Plant short-hairy

32. Plant tufted or generally prostrate to ascending; Desert ..... MONOPTILON {G13,14}

32' Plant ± erect; Central Western California ..... PENTACHAETA (2) {G2,14,15}

18' Ray yellow to orange (occasionally multi-colored)

33. Fruit drupe; shrub ..... CHRYSANTHEMOIDES

33' Fruit achene; generally herb or subshrub (except Venegasia)

34. Phyllaries unequal, overlapping in several series

35. Phyllary margins conspicuously scarious

36. Plant sticky-glandular ..... HETERANTHEMIS {G13}

36' Plant not glandular

37. Heads solitary or in open, leafy cymes; outer fruits 3-angled ..... GLEBIONIS

37' Heads in dense, flat-topped clusters; fruits cylindric to obconic ..... TANACETUM (2) {G2}

35' Phyllary margins not or barely scarious

38. Leaf oblong to obovate, pinnately lobed, tomentose at least below; phyllaries narrow, appressed or tips spreading or reflexed ..... ARCTOTHECA

38' Leaf widely ovate, entire to coarsely toothed, puberulent; phyllaries wide, outer spreading or reflexed ..... VENEGASIA

34' Phyllaries ± equal (or outer longer), in 1–3 series, slightly overlapping or not

39. Ray fruit prickly, knobby, papillate, or ridged on back; phyllary margins generally narrowly scarious

40. Involucre generally 5–9 mm; leaves glabrous or sparsely tomentose ..... BLENNOSPERMA (2)

40' Involucre 10–20 mm; leaves puberulent and/or glandular

41. Ray fruit strongly curved [crescent-shaped or almost loop-like]; disk flowers staminate ..... CALENDULA

41' Ray fruit 3-angled, not curved; disk flowers fruiting, fruit flat ..... DIMORPHOTHECA (2)

39' Ray fruit generally smooth on back; phyllary margins generally not scarious

42. Head hemispheric to ovoid or ± spheric; phyllaries spreading or reflexed ..... HELENIUM {G7,13}

42' Head cylindric to hemispheric; phyllaries erect or ascending

43. Plant green, glabrous to strigose, glandular or puberulent

44. Phyllaries in 2–3 series; plant glandular ..... AMAURIOPSIS {G13}

44' Phyllaries in 1 series; plant not glandular, ± glabrous ..... Blennosperma nanum

43' Plant ± gray-tomentose

45. Rays when dry persistent, papery, reflexed ..... BAILEYA

45' Rays when dry withering, deciduous

46. Ray corolla with small lobe opposite ray ..... MONOLOPIA (2)

46' Ray corolla without small lobe opposite ray

47. Annual, perennial herb, or subshrub; fruit 4(5)-angled or outer fruits compressed ..... ERIOPHYLLUM (2) {G7,13}

47' Annual; fruit ± compressed ..... PSEUDOBAHIA

Group 13: Heads radiate; receptacle epaleate; pappus of scales or awns

1. Leaves and phyllaries dotted or streaked with embedded, translucent oil glands — herbage strongly scented

2. Ray pale pink to bright pink-purple ..... NICOLLETIA {G14}

2' Ray yellow to red

3. Phyllaries in 1 series

4. Phyllaries free, falling with ray fruits; disk pappus generally of bristles ..... PECTIS {G12,15}

4' Phyllaries fused, persistent; disk pappus of scales ..... TAGETES

3' Phyllaries in ± 2 series — pappus scales ± divided into 5–10 bristles

5. Annual; peduncles 1–5(10) mm ..... [DYSSODIA]

5' Subshrubs; peduncles 2–15 cm

6. Leaf toothed or divided into ± flat segments; involucre 10–18 mm ..... ADENOPHYLLUM {G15}

6' Leaf divided into stiff, needle-like segments; involucre 5–6 mm ..... THYMOPHYLLA

1' Leaves and phyllaries without embedded oil glands (sometimes glandular-hairy or gland-dotted)

7. Ray white to pink or purple (occasionally multi-colored)

8. Biennial or per

9. Leaf compound; pappus scales short ..... Tanacetum parthenium {G12}

9' Leaf simple; pappus scales long, bristle-like ..... TOWNSENDIA {G14}

8' Annual

10. Leaf wide, palmately lobed or toothed ..... Perityle emoryi {G2,12,14}

10' Leaf ± narrow, entire to fiddle-shaped or pinnately lobed

11. Plant puberulent or short-stiff-hairy

12. Plant generally prostrate; ray corollas 5–12 mm ..... MONOPTILON {G12,14}

12' Plant erect; ray corollas < 2 mm ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G11,12}

11' Plant tomentose

13. Ray 1.5–2.5 mm; pappus scales 2 ..... EATONELLA (2) {G2}

13' Ray 3–30 mm; pappus scales 6–16

14. Phyllaries in 3–6+ series; ray (17)20–30 mm ..... ARCTOTIS

14' Phyllaries in 1 series; ray 3–7 mm ..... Eriophyllum lanosum

7' Ray yellow to red, sometimes multi-colored or fading to cream

15. Receptacle with stiff awn-like projections ..... [GAILLARDIA] {G11}

15' Receptacle smooth or pitted and/or minutely hairy, without stiff awn-like projections

16. Phyllaries in several series, strongly graduated

17. Leaf abaxially tomentose; stem creeping or decumbent to erect ..... ARCTOTHECA

17' Leaf glabrous to short-hairy; stem erect or ascending (rarely decumbent)

18. Phyllary tips spreading to recurved; involucre gummy — pappus of 2–6 slender deciduous awns ..... GRINDELIA {G6,7,15}

18' Phyllary tips ± appressed; involucre not or barely gummy

19. Annual; fruit winged; leaves toothed or lobed ..... HETERANTHEMIS {G12}

19' Perennial herb to shrub; fruit not winged; leaves entire

20. Body of head ± spheric; disk flowers 30–80 ..... Acamptopappus shockleyi {G15}

20' Body of head narrower than length; disk flowers 1–13

21. Leaf elliptic to obovate; disk pappus scales twisted, bristle-like ..... AMPHIPAPPUS {G15}

21' Leaf linear; disk pappus scales straight, wide, flat ..... GUTIERREZIA

16' Phyllaries in 1–3(4) series, generally ± equal (sometimes outer longer), not strongly graduated

22. Leaves basal

23. Head 3.5–8 cm diam; ray base generally dark-spotted; fruit hairs concealing pappus; sap milky ..... GAZANIA

23' Head generally < 3 cm diam; ray base not dark-spotted; fruit hairs not concealing pappus; sap clear

24. Plant ± densely glandular-hairy ..... Hulsea vestita

24' Plant not glandular-hairy, often dotted with sessile resin glands ..... TETRANEURIS

22' Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline

25. Leaves generally opposite throughout (occasionally distal-most alternate) ..... LASTHENIA {G2,12}

25' Leaves generally alternate (sometimes proximally opposite)

26. Old ray corolla papery, persistent on fruit when dry ..... PSILOSTROPHE

26' Old ray corolla withering, deciduous from fruit

27. Pappus of rigid, tapered awns; leaves linear, entire ..... RIGIOPAPPUS (2) {G11,12}

27' Pappus of ± thin scales; leaves various, entire to lobed

28. Phyllaries in 2–3 generally ± equal series, sometimes outer phyllaries longer

29. Leaves mostly or all deeply linear-lobed or 1–3 × dissected

30. Distal stem and involucres stalked-glandular; leaves 1–3 × pinnately dissected ..... AMAURIOPSIS {G12}

30' Distal stem and involucres not stalked-glandular, glands sessile or sunken; leaves entire or generally 1–2 × dissected into linear lobes ..... HYMENOXYS

29' Leaves entire to shallowly lobed

31. Pappus scales 4, in 2 unequal pairs; plant glandular-hairy ..... HULSEA

31' Pappus scales 5–8, equal or not; plant generally not glandular

32. Leaf narrowly linear, or if blade wider, base long-decurrent on stem; disk ± spheric; phyllaries generally ± reflexed ..... HELENIUM {G7,12}

32' Leaf not narrowly linear or decurrent; disk hemispheric; phyllaries generally spreading (or reflexed in age) ..... Hymenoxys hoopesii

28' Phyllaries in 1(2) series

33. Ray < 1 mm

34. Plant dotted with sessile resin glands; fruit 3–4-angled ..... AMBLYOPAPPUS {G2,12}

34' Plant densely woolly; fruit compressed ..... Monolopia congdonii {G2,12}

33' Ray 1.5–10+ mm

35. Disk fruit ± compressed; annual ..... EATONELLA (2) {G2}

35' Disk fruit (except sometimes outermost) ± cylindric, club-shaped, or 3–4-angled; annual to shrub

36. Subshrub; leaves 8–25 cm, distinctly petioled; pappus scales 2–6+, unequal or, if equal, scales 2, opposite ..... CONSTANCEA

36' Annual to shrub; leaves <= 8 cm, sessile or ± winged-petioled; pappus scales 0 or 6–12+, in 1–2 equal or unequal series ..... ERIOPHYLLUM {G7,12}

Group 14: Heads radiate; rays white to pink, blue, or purple; receptacle epaleate; pappus of bristles

1. Leaves palmately lobed or dentate

2. Annual; leaves cauline; pappus bristle 1; South Coast, Channel Islands, Peninsular Ranges, Desert ..... Perityle emoryi {G2,12,13}

2' Perennial herb; leaves basal, cauline leaves reduced to sheathing scales; pappus bristles many; moist forests, Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada, nw&n-c Central Western California ..... PETASITES {G2}

1' Leaves entire to pinnately lobed

3. Rays inconspicuous, barely surpassing disk or not

4. Phyllaries with 1–3 resin-filled veins that become orange when dry

5. Resin-filled phyllary vein 1 ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

5' Resin-filled phyllary veins generally 3

6. Subshrub; branches often thorny ..... CHLORACANTHA (3)

6' Herb; branches not thorny ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

4' Phyllaries without resin-filled veins that become orange when dry

7. Disk wide, flat; disk flowers many; pappus generally double [outer, inner elements distinct], outer of short bristles or scales ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

7' Disk longer than wide; disk flowers 4–25+; pappus generally single

8. Fruit 1–3 mm, not distally long-tapered; stem branches generally not overtopping main stem ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

8' Fruit 5–6 mm, distally long-tapered; stem branches stiffly ascending, often overtopping main stem ..... TRACYINA {G15}

3' Rays conspicuous, generally much exceeding disk

9. Pappus bristles alternating with well-developed scales — plant with strong, pungent odor ..... NICOLLETIA {G13}

9' Pappus of bristles only or scales very short

10. Pappus bristles <= 15

11. Pappus double, of 1–15 bristles and 5 narrow scales or of 1 plumose-tipped bristle and a low crown ..... MONOPTILON {G12,13}

11' Pappus single, of 3–5 bristles ..... PENTACHAETA {G2,12,15}

10' Pappus bristles generally > 20

12. Bristles distinctly flattened, barbed to ± plumose ..... TOWNSENDIA {G13}

12' Bristles ± cylindric or weakly flattened, smooth to barbed

13. Main phyllaries ± equal in 1–3(4) series

14. Pappus ± 1 mm, bristles fused at base; plant woolly ..... SYNTRICHOPAPPUS {G15}

14' Pappus generally >> 1 mm, bristles free; plant generally not woolly

15. Pappus generally double, outer of short bristles or scales (0), inner of soft bristles; rays generally < 2 mm wide ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

15' Pappus single; rays often > 2 mm wide

16. Annual; main phyllaries equal, in 1 series [often with very short outer phyllaries] ..... Senecio elegans

16' Perennial herb; main phyllaries ± equal, in 2–3(4) series

17. Heads solitary; leaves all or mostly basal, cauline reduced or 0 ..... OREOSTEMMA

17' Heads clustered; leaves basal and cauline or all cauline ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

13' Main phyllaries unequal, graduated in 2–several series

18. Shrub or subshrub

19. Phyllary veins resin-filled, orange when dry; plant often thorny ..... CHLORACANTHA (3)

19' Phyllary veins not resin-filled or orange; plant unarmed

20. Ray flowers sterile [style 0, ovary vestigial]; pappus brown or ± red ..... CORETHROGYNE (2)

20' Ray flowers fruiting [style present]; pappus generally ± white

21. Ray flowers 15–40 mm; leaves often sharply toothed

22. Outer phyllaries ± oblanceolate, tips acute to obtuse, generally reflexed in age; e Peninsular Ranges ..... Dieteria canescens var. ziegleri

22' Outer phyllaries linear to lance-linear, tips sharply acute, not reflexed in age; East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... XYLORHIZA (2)

21' Ray flowers 5–10 mm; leaves entire

23. Slender subshrub, minutely stalked-glandular, or nonglandular and strigose ..... CHAETOPAPPA (2)

23' Stiff shrub, glabrous, sticky-resinous ..... Ericameria gilmanii

18' Herb

24. Ray flowers sterile (style 0, ovary ± vestigial)

25. Disk style branch tips densely tufted with stiff yellow hairs; pappus brown or ± red ..... CORETHROGYNE (2)

25' Disk style branches without stiff yellow hairs; pappus ± white

26. Involucre 6–9 mm ..... Dieteria canescens var. shastensis

26' Involucre 3–6 mm ..... Leucosyris arida

24' Ray flowers fruiting, style present

27. Pappus double, outer of short bristles or scales, inner of long bristles

28. Resin-filled phyllary veins generally 3; stem often thorny ..... CHLORACANTHA (3)

28' Resin-filled phyllary veins 0–1; stem unarmed

29. Rays narrowly linear, often very many ..... ERIGERON (5) {G2,6,15}

29' Rays oblong, 1–16

30. Disk corolla white — heads in tight clusters at tips of inflorescence branches ..... SERICOCARPUS (2)

30' Disk corolla yellow

31. Heads in cyme-like cluster ..... EUCEPHALUS {G14}

31' Heads solitary ..... IONACTIS

27' Pappus single, or bristles ± equal if more than 1 series

32. Phyllaries ± herbaceous throughout (or margin scarious to ± white)

33. Leaves 4–12 mm; plant 5–15(20) cm — stems slender, generally branched, very leafy ..... CHAETOPAPPA (2)

33' Leaves generally 30–200 mm; plant often > 20 cm ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

32' Phyllary tips ± herbaceous, bases white to straw-colored

34. Annual to perennial herb with taproot; leaves ± entire to toothed or pinnately dissected, teeth sometimes bristle-tipped; phyllary tips often spreading

35. Heads 3.5–6 cm diam, solitary ..... XYLORHIZA (2)

35' Heads generally < 3 cm diam, often in cyme-like clusters

36. Rays 1.3–4 mm ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

36' Rays 6–20 mm

37. Leaves entire to toothed ..... DIETERIA

37' Leaves 1–2-pinnately dissected ..... MACHAERANTHERA

34' Perennial herb with rhizome or caudex; leaves entire to toothed; phyllary tips generally appressed

38. Heads in tight clusters at tips of inflorescence branches; disk corolla white ..... SERICOCARPUS (2)

38' Heads in raceme-like or flat-topped cluster or 1 at tips of long inflorescence branches; disk corolla yellow or tinged pink or purple

39. Phyllaries glabrous or hairy

40. Disk corolla tube >= throat; fruit ribs 7–10 ..... EURYBIA

40' Disk corolla tube < throat; fruit ribs (1)2–6 (5–8 in Symphyotrichum defoliatum) ..... SYMPHYOTRICHUM (5)

39' Phyllaries densely glandular

41. Heads solitary at tips of long inflorescence branches; cauline leaves ± linear, grass-like ..... ALMUTASTER

41' Heads in raceme-like, panicle-like, or ± flat-topped cluster; cauline leaves linear to (ob)lanceolate or obovate, grass-like or not

42. Involucre 8–14 mm; disk corolla 6–7.8 mm, pale yellow, aging ± pink or purple ..... Eurybia integrifolia

42' Involucre 5.5–8 mm; disk corolla 4.5–6 mm, yellow ..... Symphyotrichum campestre

Group 15: Heads radiate; rays yellow to red; receptacle epaleate; pappus of bristles

1. Leaves opposite at least proximally

2. Leaves and phyllaries dotted or streaked with embedded, translucent oil glands, strongly scented

3. Leaves sharply toothed to pinnately dissected; phyllaries in 2 series ..... ADENOPHYLLUM (3) {G13}

3' Leaves linear, entire, base bristly-ciliate; phyllaries 8, in 1 series ..... PECTIS {G12,13}

2' Leaves and phyllaries without embedded oil glands, not or faintly scented

4. Trailing fleshy perennial herb; pappus bristles 1–5; coastal saline habitats ..... JAUMEA

4' Erect annual or perennial herb, not fleshy; pappus bristles many; inland

5. Perennial herb, generally from rhizome; involucre generally 8–20 mm; pappus bristles >> 2 mm, free ..... ARNICA {G6}

5' Annual; involucre 5–7 mm; pappus brisltes 1–2 mm, fused at base ..... SYNTRICHOPAPPUS (2) {G14}

1' Leaves alternate throughout

6. Annual or biennial

7. Phyllary tip with a prominent tack-shaped gland; disk flowers staminate ..... BENITOA

7' Phyllary tip without a prominent tack-shaped gland; disk flowers bisexual

8. Ray fruit pappus 0 [disk fruit pappus present]

9. Phyllaries in 1 series, fused at base ..... CROCIDIUM (2)

9' Phyllaries in 2–several series, free ..... HETEROTHECA (2)

8' Ray [and disk] fruits with pappus

10. Main phyllaries unequal, in 2–several series

11. Pappus bristles flat, deciduous; involucre gummy-resinous ..... GRINDELIA (3) {G6,7,13}

11' Pappus bristles generally ± cylindric or flattened only at base, generally persistent; involucre not gummy-resinous

12. Pappus double, outer of short scales, inner of 8–16+ bristles ..... PULICARIA (3)

12' Pappus single or, if double, of bristles throughout

13. Fruit distally long-tapered; rays 1–1.5+ mm ..... TRACYINA {G14}

13' Fruit not distally long-tapered; rays <= 12 mm

14. Leaves serrate to 1–2-pinnately lobed ..... Xanthisma gracile

14' Leaves entire to finely toothed

15. Plant sticky-glandular, strongly aromatic; heads many in dense raceme- or ± panicle-like clusters ..... DITTRICHIA

15' Plant not glandular, not aromatic; heads solitary or few in open, ± flat-topped cluster ..... PENTACHAETA (2) {G2,12,14}

10' Main phyllaries ± equal, in 1–3 series

16. Phyllary margins evidently scarious

17. Rays 3–12 mm; pappus single, of 5–20 bristles ..... PENTACHAETA (2) {G2,12,14}

17' Rays 1.5–2 mm; pappus double, outer of short scales, inner of 8–16+ bristles ..... PULICARIA (3)

16' Phyllary margins not or only slightly scarious (except alternate phyllaries in Syntrichopappus)

18. Receptacle conic; phyllaries fused at base ..... CROCIDIUM (2)

18' Receptacle ± flat; phyllaries free

19. Phyllaries generally 5, ± enfolding ray fruits ..... SYNTRICHOPAPPUS (2) {G14}

19' Phyllaries generally 8, 13, or 21, not enfolding ray fruits

20. Plant with short, button-like caudex, with many fleshy-fibrous, unbranched roots ..... SENECIO (7) {G2,6}

20' Plant tap- or fibrous rooted, without fleshy-fibrous, unbranched roots

21. Phyllary tips black ..... SENECIO (7) {G2,6}

21' Phyllary tips green

22. Rays 7–15+ mm; biennial ..... PACKERA (2) {G6}

22' Rays <= 3 mm; slender annual ..... SENECIO (7) {G2,6}

6' Perennial herb to shrub

23. Shrub or subshrub

24. Outer phyllaries with an embedded, translucent oil gland near tip; plant strongly pungent-scented ..... ADENOPHYLLUM (3) {G13}

24' Outer phyllaries without oil glands; plant scented or not

25. Main phyllaries in 1 series, equal (often a few, generally much shorter, outer phyllaries present) ..... SENECIO (7) {G2,6}

25' Main phyllaries in 2–7 series, often graduated, often unequal

26. Pappus bristles flattened; phyllaries ± ovate

27. Phyllary tips recurved to coiled; involucre gummy; ray flowers 20–60 ..... GRINDELIA (3) {G6,7,13}

27' Phyllary tips ± appressed; involucre ± resinous but not gummy; ray flowers 1–14

28. Rays 5–14, >> involucre; disk flowers 30–80, fruiting ..... Acamptopappus shockleyi {G13}

28' Rays 1–2, barely > involucre; disk flowers 3–7, staminate ..... AMPHIPAPPUS {G13}

26' Pappus bristles ± cylindric; phyllaries generally linear to narrowly lanceolate

29. Woody stems ± prostrate, plant cushion-forming

30. Leaves 1-veined, linear, of uniform size throughout ..... NESTOTUS (2)

30' Leaves 3-veined, narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, distal reduced ..... STENOTUS (2)

29' Woody stems generally erect or ascending

31. Phyllaries ± graduated in 2–4 series, bases loose to tightly appressed, tips weakly thickened, or not, green or straw-colored, never tomentose; leaves entire ..... ERICAMERIA {G6}

31' Phyllaries strongly graduated in 5–7 series, bases tightly appressed, straw-colored, tips clearly thickened, green (sometimes phyllaries densely tomentose); leaves often toothed

32. Distal leaves generally not much reduced ..... HAZARDIA {G6}

32' Distal leaves reduced to scale-like bracts ..... XANTHISMA (2)

23' Herb

33. Outer phyllaries with an embedded, translucent oil gland near tip; plant strongly pungent-scented ..... ADENOPHYLLUM (3) {G13}

33' Outer phyllaries without oil glands; plant scented or not

34. Main phyllaries in 1 series, equal [often with a few, very short, outer phyllaries]

35. Stem from an abruptly shortened, button-like caudex, with many fleshy-fibrous, unbranched roots ..... SENECIO (7) {G2,6}

35' Stem from a taproot, caudex, or rhizome, never with an abruptly shortened, button-like caudex

36. Leaves ± equal, ± evenly distributed along stem or crowded distally at flower ..... SENECIO (7) {G2,6}

36' Leaves reduced distally; proximal leaves prominent, generally persistent

37. Stem from thin taproot, caudex, or rhizome; roots fibrous, branched; leaf ± entire to pinnately lobed, marginal teeth not hard, not translucent ..... PACKERA (2) {G6}

37' Stem from thick, creeping or erect rhizome; roots fleshy, unbranched; leaf dentate to minutely dentate, marginal teeth hard, translucent — leaf tapered to winged petiole ..... SENECIO (7) {G2,6}

34' Phyllaries in 2+ series, ± equal to strongly graduated

38. Disk pappus double, outer of very short bristles or scales

39. Stem simple, erect; phyllaries ± equal — fruit 2-ribbed ..... ERIGERON {G2,6,14}

39' Stem generally branched, prostrate to erect; phyllaries generally ± unequal

40. Rays 3–12 mm; disk fruit 1.5–4 mm, ± flat; pappus 3–7 mm ..... HETEROTHECA (2)

40' Rays 1.5–2.5 mm; disk fruit ± 1 mm, ± cylindric or fusiform; pappus 2–3 mm

41. Outer pappus of bristles, 1.5 mm; anther base appendages 0 ..... EUTHAMIA (2)

41' Outer pappus a crown of ± fused scales, < 0.4 mm; anther base appendages bristle-like ..... PULICARIA (3)

38' Disk pappus single

42. Pappus bristles flat, deciduous; involucre strongly gummy-resinous, especially in bud ..... GRINDELIA (3) {G6,7,13}

42' Pappus bristles ± cylindric, generally persistent; involucre not strongly gummy-resinous

43. Leaf toothed or lobed

44. Heads generally small, in racemes or panicles, often clustered on 1 side of branches ..... SOLIDAGO (2)

44' Heads generally not small, not in 1-sided clusters

45. Basal rosette well developed

46. Plant with stout taproot; stems, leaves glabrous or tomentose to woolly and/or stalked-glandular; fruit 3–4 angled ..... PYRROCOMA (2)

46' Plant with branched caudex, taprooted; stems, leaves stalked-glandular, sticky, otherwise glabrous; fruit not 3–4 angled ..... TONESTUS (2)

45' Rosette 0 or poorly developed

47. Fruit 2–3 mm, obconic; leaf teeth or lobes bristle- or minutely spine-tipped ..... XANTHISMA (2)

47' Fruit 3–10 mm, ± cylindric or compressed; leaf margin not bristle- or minutely spine-tipped

48. Fruit 5–10 mm, glabrous; phyllaries in 4–5 series, strongly graduated ..... Hazardia whitneyi

48' Fruit 2.5–6 mm, hairy; phyllaries inn 3–4 series, ± equal or weakly graduated ..... TONESTUS (2)

43' Leaf entire

49. Phyllaries in vertical ranks; disk flowers staminate ..... PETRADORIA

49' Phyllaries not in vertical ranks; disk flowers fruiting

50. Heads small, in clusters at branch tips; inflorescence leafy, panicle-like or ± flat-topped; stem erect from rhizome; fruit ± 1 mm ..... EUTHAMIA (2)

50' Heads small to large, 1–several; inflorescence various; stem from taproot, caudex, or rhizome; fruit generally >> 1 mm

51. Plant with stout taproot — basal rosette well developed ..... PYRROCOMA (2)

51' Plant with ± branched caudex or rhizome

52. Plant densely long-stalked-glandular ..... Tonestus lyallii

52' Plant glandless or short-stalked-glandular

53. Rays 1–6 mm; cauline leaves distributed well up stem ..... SOLIDAGO (2)

53' Rays 7–12 mm; cauline leaves generally only at stem base

54. Leaves 1-veined, linear to oblanceolate, of uniform size throughout ..... NESTOTUS (2)

54' Leaves 3-veined, narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, distal reduced ..... STENOTUS (2)

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