Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Malacothrix

View taxon page for Malacothrix

1. Perennial herb (occasionally flowering first year)

2. Cauline leaves ± fleshy; ligules ± yellow; fruit smooth, outer pappus 0; dunes ..... M. incana

2' Cauline leaves generally not fleshy; ligules white; fruit minutely spiny, outer pappus of irregular teeth ..... M. saxatilis

3. Distal leaves generally 1–2-pinnately lobed

4. Stem densely leafy; distal leaves (ob)ovate, 2-pinnately divided into linear segments ..... var. implicata

4' Stem ± sparsely leafy; distal leaves linear to lanceolate, sharply and narrowly lobed ..... var. tenuifolia

3' Distal leaves generally entire (toothed)

5. Distal leaves generally linear to ovate, tip occasionally obtuse; coastal bluffs ..... var. saxatilis

5' Distal leaves lance-linear to elliptic, generally acute

6. Herbage tomentose ..... var. arachnoidea

6' Herbage glabrous to ± hairy ..... var. commutata

1' Annual

7. Plant scapose, stem unbranched, generally not visible above ground; heads borne singly on long, ± naked peduncles; outer phyllaries with ± tangled long hairs ..... M. californica

7' Plant with ± leafy stem, or if ± scapose, stem generally evident above ground, branched or not; heads generally borne in clusters; outer phyllaries glabrous, or ± short white-hairy

8. Cauline leaves generally with ear-like basal lobes; involucre generally spheric; outermost phyllaries widely ovate to round, margin widely scarious ..... M. coulteri

8' Cauline leaves generally without ear-like basal lobes; involucre generally bell-shaped; outermost phyllaries lanceolate to widely ovate

9. Cauline leaves not or seldom notably reduced distally on stem; Channel Islands

10. Fruit with outer pappus

11. Distal leaves generally oblanceolate, with few, short lobes; involucre 7–8.5 mm; fruit ribs ± equal, extending to tip; outer pappus of minute teeth and 1–2 bristles; Anacapa Island ..... M. junakii

11' Distal leaves narrowly ovate, with 5–10 narrow, ± sharp teeth or lobes; involucre 9–12 mm; 5 fruit ribs prominent, extending ± beyond tip; outer pappus of minute teeth, bristles 0(1); Anacapa, Santa Cruz islands ..... M. squalida

10' Fruit generally without outer pappus

12. Cauline leaves generally fleshy, margins ± equally lobed, tips obtuse; San Miguel, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa islands ..... M. indecora

12' Cauline leaves generally not fleshy, lobes ± equal, generally sharp; Anacapa, San Clemente, San Nicolas, Santa Barbara islands ..... M. foliosa

13. Ligules of outermost flowers exserted < 5 mm

14. Stem 1–6, generally branched at base and distally; distal-most leaves distally sharply 4–10-lobed, ultimate margins curled; outer phyllaries ± overlapping; Anacapa Island ..... subsp. crispifolia

14' Stem generally 1, branched above base; distal-most leaves generally 2-lobed at base, ultimate margins generally not curled; outer phyllaries ± 1/2 inner phyllaries; San Nicolas Island ..... subsp. polycephala

13' Ligules of outermost flowers exserted generally > 5 mm

15. Stem generally 1, generally erect, branched distally; distal-most leaves generally 2-lobed at base; San Clemente Island ..... subsp. foliosa

15' Stems (1)3–5(10), erect, or decumbent to ascending; distal-most leaves generally pinnately lobed from base to near tip; Santa Barbara Island ..... subsp. philbrickii

9' Cauline leaves generally much reduced distally on stem; widespread, generally mainland habitats (Malacothrix clevelandii, Malacothrix similis also Channel Islands)

16. Ligules of outermost flowers exserted < 5 mm

17. Proximal cauline leaves ± fleshy, lobes in 3–8 pairs, short, ± equal, generally toothed; fruit outer pappus a rounded-toothed crown, bristles 0 ..... M. phaeocarpa

17' Proximal cauline leaves generally not fleshy, unequally toothed or narrowly lobed; fruit outer pappus of needle-like teeth, bristle generally 1

18. Basal leaves generally obovate in outline; corolla generally 6–8 mm, white or pale yellow; fruit generally 1.7–2.3 mm, ribs 0 near tip ..... M. stebbinsii

18' Basal leaves generally lance-linear to (ob)lanceolate in outline; corolla 4–9 mm, pale yellow to yellow; fruit 1.2–1.8 mm, ribs extending to tip

19. Stem generally branched mostly distally; cauline leaves generally toothed; pollen 70–100% 3-pored; common, widespread ..... M. clevelandii

19' Stem generally branched mostly from base; cauline leaves ± entire; pollen 70–100% 4-pored; uncommon, South Coast, n Channel Islands ..... M. similis

16' Ligules of outermost flowers exserted >= 5 mm

20. Ligules generally white (± yellow); fruit 1.2–2 mm; outer pappus 0; not of desert habitats ..... M. floccifera

20' Ligules yellow (white); fruit 1.8–3.3 mm; outer pappus present; often desert-like habitats

21. Leaf lobes ± equal, generally thread-like ..... M. glabrata

21' Leaf lobes short, ± equal, oblong, or triangular to linear

22. Distal-most leaves generally widest at base; outer pappus a rounded-toothed crown, bristles 0 ..... M. sonchoides

22' Distal-most leaves generally narrowed to strap-like base; outer pappus of irregular teeth, bristles (0)1–6 ..... M. torreyi


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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