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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, perennial herb, < 70 (200) cm; sap milky.
Stem: generally ± branched, generally erect, generally glabrous.
Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate, sessile, sometimes reduced distally on stem, entire, toothed, or ± deeply pinnately lobed or divided.
Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous; involucre generally bell-shaped; phyllaries in 3–6 series, mid-stripe green or ± red; receptacle flat to convex, shallowly pitted, glabrous or with fragile, smooth bristles < 5 mm, epaleate.
Flower: corolla yellow or white, readily withering; ligules of outermost flowers exserted 1–15 mm, generally ± red- or purple-striped abaxially.
Fruit: 0.9–4 mm, ± fusiform, tip truncate, generally smooth; ribs 15 (5 generally prominent, 10 ± obscure), generally extending to tip; outer pappus 0 or of teeth < 0.5 mm, or rounded-toothed crown, and 0–6 smooth, persistent bristles, inner pappus of 12–32 bristles fused at base, readily deciduous, minutely barbed proximally.
20 species: w North America, s South America. (Greek: soft hair) [Davis 2006 FNANM 19:310–321] Anisocoma, Atrichoseris, and Calycoseris perhaps best placed here (Lee et al. 2003 Syst Bot 28:616–626).
1. Perennial (occasionally flowering first yr)
2. Cauline leaves ± fleshy; ligules ± yellow; fruit smooth, outer pappus 0; dunes ..... M. incana
2' Cauline leaves generally not fleshy; ligules white; fruit minutely spiny, outer pappus of irregular teeth ..... M. saxatilis
3. Distal leaves generally 1–2-pinnately lobed
4. St densely leafy; distal leaves (ob)ovate, 2-pinnately divided into linear segments ..... var. implicata
4' St ± sparsely leafy; distal leaves linear to lanceolate, sharply and narrowly lobed ..... var. tenuifolia
3' Distal leaves generally entire (toothed)
5. Distal leaves generally linear to ovate, tip occasionally obtuse; coastal bluffs ..... var. saxatilis
5' Distal leaves lance-linear to elliptic, generally acute
6. Herbage tomentose ..... var. arachnoidea
6' Herbage glabrous to ± hairy ..... var. commutata
7. Plant scapose, stem unbranched, generally not visible above ground; heads borne singly on long, ± naked peduncles; outer phyllaries with ± tangled long hairs ..... M. californica
7' Plant with ± leafy stem, or if ± scapose, stem generally evident above ground, branched or not; heads generally borne in clusters; outer phyllaries glabrous, or ± short white-hairy
8. Cauline leaves generally with ear-like basal lobes; involucre generally spheric; outermost phyllaries widely ovate to round, margin widely scarious ..... M. coulteri
8' Cauline leaves generally without ear-like basal lobes; involucre generally bell-shaped; outermost phyllaries lanceolate to widely ovate
9. Cauline leaves not or seldom notably reduced distally on stem; ChI
10. Fr with outer pappus
11. Distal leaves generally oblanceolate, with few, short lobes; involucre 7–8.5 mm; fruit ribs ± equal, extending to tip; outer pappus of minute teeth and 1–2 bristles; Anacapa Island ..... M. junakii
11' Distal leaves narrowly ovate, with 5–10 narrow, ± sharp teeth or lobes; involucre 9–12 mm; 5 fruit ribs prominent, extending ± beyond tip; outer pappus of minute teeth, bristles 0(1); Anacapa, Santa Cruz islands ..... M. squalida
10' Fr generally without outer pappus
12. Cauline leaves generally fleshy, margins ± equally lobed, tips obtuse; San Miguel, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa islands ..... M. indecora
12' Cauline leaves generally not fleshy, lobes ± equal, generally sharp; Anacapa, San Clemente, San Nicolas, Santa Barbara islands ..... M. foliosa
13. Ligules of outermost flowers exserted < 5 mm
14. St 1–6, generally branched at base and distally; distal-most leaves distally sharply 4–10-lobed, ultimate margins curled; outer phyllaries ± overlapping; Anacapa Island ..... subsp. crispifolia
14' St generally 1, branched above base; distal-most leaves generally 2-lobed at base, ultimate margins generally not curled; outer phyllaries ± 1/2 inner phyllaries; San Nicolas Island ..... subsp. polycephala
13' Ligules of outermost flowers exserted generally > 5 mm
15. St generally 1, generally erect, branched distally; distal-most leaves generally 2-lobed at base; San Clemente Island ..... subsp. foliosa
15' Sts (1)3–5(10), erect, or decumbent to ascending; distal-most leaves generally pinnately lobed from base to near tip; Santa Barbara Island ..... subsp. philbrickii
9' Cauline leaves generally much reduced distally on stem; widespread, generally mainland habitats (Malacothrix clevelandii, Malacothrix similis also ChI)
16. Ligules of outermost flowers exserted < 5 mm
17. Proximal cauline leaves ± fleshy, lobes in 3–8 pairs, short, ± equal, generally toothed; fruit outer pappus a rounded-toothed crown, bristles 0 ..... M. phaeocarpa
17' Proximal cauline leaves generally not fleshy, unequally toothed or narrowly lobed; fruit outer pappus of needle-like teeth, bristle generally 1
18. Basal leaves generally obovate in outline; corolla generally 6–8 mm, white or pale yellow; fruit generally 1.7–2.3 mm, ribs 0 near tip ..... M. stebbinsii
18' Basal leaves generally lance-linear to (ob)lanceolate in outline; corolla 4–9 mm, pale yellow to yellow; fruit 1.2–1.8 mm, ribs extending to tip
19. St generally branched mostly distally; cauline leaves generally toothed; pollen 70–100% 3-pored; common, widespread ..... M. clevelandii
19' St generally branched mostly from base; cauline leaves ± entire; pollen 70–100% 4-pored; uncommon, SCo, n ChI ..... M. similis
16' Ligules of outermost flowers exserted >= 5 mm
20. Ligules generally white (± yellow); fruit 1.2–2 mm; outer pappus 0; not of desert habitats ..... M. floccifera
20' Ligules yellow (white); fruit 1.8–3.3 mm; outer pappus present; often desert-like habitats
21. Lf lobes ± equal, generally thread-like ..... M. glabrata
21' Lf lobes short, ± equal, oblong, or triangular to linear
22. Distal-most leaves generally widest at base; outer pappus a rounded-toothed crown, bristles 0 ..... M. sonchoides
22' Distal-most leaves generally narrowed to strap-like base; outer pappus of irregular teeth, bristles (0)1–6 ..... M. torreyi
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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