Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Apiaceae

View taxon page for Apiaceae

1. Flowers in simple umbels or heads (spikes or racemes); fruit central axis not obvious

2. Leaf base not sheathing but stipules present, occasionally ± fused distal to node when leaves opposite

3. Herbage hairs stellate; fruit not or ± compressed front-to-back, inflated ..... BOWLESIA

3' Herbage hairs simple or 0; fruit very compressed side-to-side ..... HYDROCOTYLE (treated in Araliaceae)

2' Leaf conspicuously sheathing at base, stipules 0

4. Flowers in open umbels; fruit glabrous, with well-defined, thickened ribs or not ..... LILAEOPSIS

4' Flowers in dense umbels or heads; fruit with scales, prickles, or tubercles, without distinct ribs

5. Flowers bisexual, sessile, each with 1 bract ..... ERYNGIUM

5' Flowers bisexual and staminate in same umbel or head (staminate only), staminate generally long-pedicelled; flowers not each with 1 bract ..... SANICULA

1' Flowers in compound or occasionally simple umbels, occasionally compound and head-like; fruit central axis generally obvious, separate (except Podistera)

6. Annual or biennial, slender-taprooted or roots fibrous, reproducing only from seed

7. Corolla yellow ..... ANETHUM

7' Corolla generally white

8. Fruit generally elongate, much longer than wide, beaked or long-tapered to tip

9. Bractlets entire; fruit ribs 0 or obscure, sterile beak << fertile body ..... ANTHRISCUS

9' Bractlets entire to lobed or dissected; fruit ribs prominent, sterile beak > fertile body ..... SCANDIX

8' Fruit ± round to oblong or elliptic, not or only ± longer than wide, not beaked, not long-tapered to tip

10. Fruit ± round, not compressed, halves not separating readily ..... CORIANDRUM

10' Fruit ovate or cordate to oblong or elliptic, compressed either side-to-side or front-to-back, halves separating readily

11. Bracts leaf-like, generally dissected

12. Herbage, fruit glabrous ..... AMMI

12' Herbage hairy; fruit conspicuously bristly

13. Fruit very compressed front-to-back; rays generally many; umbel dense, nest-like in fruit ..... DAUCUS

13' Fruit compressed side-to-side; rays few (1–9); umbel open, not nest-like in fruit ..... YABEA

11' Bracts 0 or inconspicuous, not leaf-like

14. Leaves generally opposite; rays 2–3; fruit elliptic-cordate ..... APIASTRUM

14' Leaves generally alternate; rays 0–14; fruit elliptic to narrowly ovate

15. Petal tips narrowed, incurved; fruit prickly throughout or only on outer half; herbage hairy ..... TORILIS

15' Petal tips not narrowed, not incurved; fruit prickly throughout, tubercled, sharply scabrous, or glabrous; herbage glabrous or ± scabrous, not hairy

16. Involucel 0; fruit glabrous ..... CYCLOSPERMUM

16' Involucel present; fruit conspicuously bristly or sharply scabrous, at least on ribs

17. Inflorescence except fruits puberulent; fruit oblong-ovate ..... AMMOSELINUM

17' Inflorescence except fruits glabrous; fruit wide-ovate ..... SPERMOLEPIS

6' Perennial herb or biennial, from taproot or from persistent underground structures, not reproducing only from seed

18. Plant glabrous; generally in flooded to wet or moist (dry) soil

19. Stem generally conspicuously purple-spotted or -streaked; herbage musty-scented; fruit oil tubes not apparent ..... CONIUM (2)

19' Stem green or occasionally ± purple, unspotted; herbage not musty-scented; fruit oil tubes apparent

20. Stem from well-developed single or clustered tubers, or clustered, fibrous roots, generally not rooting at proximal nodes

21. Plant rhizomatous; sap from rhizome becoming ± red-brown in air ..... CICUTA

21' Plant not rhizomatous; sap from rhizome not changing color in air

22. Calyx lobes a persistent crown on fruit; fruit corky; fruit central axis not obvious ..... OENANTHE (2)

22' Calyx lobes evident but not a persistent crown on fruit; fruit not evidently corky; fruit central axis an apparent, separate structure

23. Fruit very compressed front-to-back, marginal ribs wide, thin-winged ..... OXYPOLIS

23' Fruit ± or not compressed side-to-side, ribs ± equal, thread-like to prominent but not clearly winged ..... PERIDERIDIA

20' Stem generally from stout taproot, or generally rooting at proximal nodes or along rhizomes, stolons

24. Calyx lobes a persistent crown on fruit; fruit central axis not obvious ..... OENANTHE (2)

24' Calyx lobes 0 or minute, generally not a persistent crown on fruit; fruit central axis an apparent, separate structure

25. Fruit halves not adhering to central axis; bracts, bractlets conspicuous to 0 ..... APIUM

25' Fruit halves generally adhering to central axis; bracts, bractlets conspicuous

26. Fruit ribs thread-like, inconspicuous in corky fruit wall ..... BERULA

26' Fruit ribs prominent, corky ..... SIUM

18' Plant glabrous or variously hairy; wet to dry soil

27. Herbage anise- or licorice-scented; leaf segments thread-like ..... FOENICULUM

27' Herbage scented or not, but not anise-scented; leaf segments wider than thread-like

28. Fruit ribs ± equal, none expanded as wings

29. Biennial of disturbed or cultivated places

30. Stems generally purple-spotted; cauline leaves like basal; fruit ribs prominent, wavy ..... CONIUM (2)

30' Stems unspotted; cauline leaves with more, narrower segments than basal; fruit ribs thread-like, not wavy ..... [PETROSELINUM]

29' Perennial herb of generally undisturbed places

31. Plant dwarfed, 2–15 cm; leaf segments not sharply serrate

32. Umbels not head-like; involucel inconspicuous, not 1-sided, bractlets 0 or free; calyx lobes 0; styles cylindric; plant erect or spreading, not cushion-forming; leaves loosely recurved or occasionally spreading at soil surface ..... OROGENIA (2)

32' Involucel conspicuous, 1-sided, bractlets generally partly fused; calyx lobes conspicuous or not; styles compressed, flattened; plants cushion-forming or leaves spreading at soil surface; umbels head-like

33. Herbage coarsely hairy to tomentose; sterile pedicels many, > fruit ..... OREONANA

33' Herbage thinly to densely puberulent; sterile pedicels 0–few, << fruit ..... PODISTERA

31' Plant not dwarfed, 10–120 cm, if < 20 cm, leaf segments sharply serrate

34. Fruit linear to oblong, 8–22 mm; fruit oil tubes obscure; roots licorice-scented ..... OSMORHIZA

34' Fruit oblong to round, 2–9 mm; fruit oil tubes evident, 1–5 per rib-interval; roots not licorice-scented

35. Corolla white; involucel generally 0, or < pedicels ..... LIGUSTICUM (2)

35' Corolla yellow; involucel present, generally > pedicels ..... TAUSCHIA

28' Fruit ribs equal or not, some expanded as definite wings

36. Ribs winged at margins of fruit halves, others not or more narrowly so; fruit compressed front-to-back

37. Plant robust, 1–3 m; outer petals of marginal flowers > others; oil tubes extending part-way to base of fruit ..... HERACLEUM

37' Plant not robust, generally < 1 m; outer petals of marginal flowers = others; oil tubes extending to base of fruit

38. Projection at ovary tip small, conic, persistent on fruit

39. Leaf 1–4-pinnately or -ternate-pinnately dissected or compound; corolla white; perennial herb ..... CONIOSELINUM

39' Leaf 1-pinnate; corolla yellow or orange; generally biennial, or perennial herb ..... PASTINACA

38' Projection at ovary tip 0

40. Marginal fruit wings thin or corky, not incurved; fruit axis divided to base ..... LOMATIUM

40' Marginal fruit wings very corky, incurved; fruit axis a corky ridge along middle of each fruit half ..... OROGENIA (2)

36' Ribs winged at margins of fruit halves, some others ± winged; fruit cylindric to ± compressed front-to-back or side-to-side (strongly compressed)

41. Plant low, generally spreading, stem generally 0; rays well developed or not; ovary tip projection 0

42. Plant erect or ± spreading; leaf adaxial surface generally glaucous, glabrous to scabrous or finely hairy, abaxial surface not tomentose; inland, generally dry places ..... CYMOPTERUS

42' Plant prostrate or ± spreading; leaf adaxial surface green, abaxial tomentose; seashore ..... GLEHNIA

41' Plant erect, stem generally present; rays well developed; ovary tip projection conic

43. Pedicels reduced to a disk; 2° umbels head-like ..... SPHENOSCIADIUM

43' Pedicels distinct or ± webbed at base, not reduced to a disk; 2° umbels open, not head-like

44. Stem base not fibrous; leaf segments generally coarse; fruit generally compressed front-to-back (± compressed to cylindric) ..... ANGELICA

44' Stem base conspicuously fibrous; leaf segments generally fine; fruit compressed side-to-side ..... LIGUSTICUM (2)


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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