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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted


Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

1. Flowers in simple umbels or heads (spikes or racemes); fruit central axis not obvious

2. Leaf base not sheathing but stipules present, occasionally ± fused distal to node when leaves opposite

3. Herbage hairs stellate; fruit not or ± compressed front-to-back, inflated ..... BOWLESIA

3' Herbage hairs simple or 0; fruit very compressed side-to-side ..... HYDROCOTYLE (treated in Araliaceae)

2' Leaf conspicuously sheathing at base, stipules 0

4. Flowers in open umbels; fruit glabrous, with well-defined, thickened ribs or not ..... LILAEOPSIS

4' Flowers in dense umbels or heads; fruit with scales, prickles, or tubercles, without distinct ribs

5. Flowers bisexual, sessile, each with 1 bract ..... ERYNGIUM

5' Flowers bisexual and staminate in same umbel or head (staminate only), staminate generally long-pedicelled; flowers not each with 1 bract ..... SANICULA

1' Flowers in compound or occasionally simple umbels, occasionally compound and head-like; fruit central axis generally obvious, separate (except Podistera)

6. Annual or biennial, slender-taprooted or roots fibrous, reproducing only from seed

7. Corolla yellow ..... ANETHUM

7' Corolla generally white

8. Fruit generally elongate, much longer than wide, beaked or long-tapered to tip

9. Bractlets entire; fruit ribs 0 or obscure, sterile beak << fertile body ..... ANTHRISCUS

9' Bractlets entire to lobed or dissected; fruit ribs prominent, sterile beak > fertile body ..... SCANDIX

8' Fruit ± round to oblong or elliptic, not or only ± longer than wide, not beaked, not long-tapered to tip

10. Fruit ± round, not compressed, halves not separating readily ..... CORIANDRUM

10' Fruit ovate or cordate to oblong or elliptic, compressed either side-to-side or front-to-back, halves separating readily

11. Bracts leaf-like, generally dissected

12. Herbage, fruit glabrous ..... AMMI

12' Herbage hairy; fruit conspicuously bristly

13. Fruit very compressed front-to-back; rays generally many; umbel dense, nest-like in fruit ..... DAUCUS

13' Fruit compressed side-to-side; rays few (1–9); umbel open, not nest-like in fruit ..... YABEA

11' Bracts 0 or inconspicuous, not leaf-like

14. Leaves generally opposite; rays 2–3; fruit elliptic-cordate ..... APIASTRUM

14' Leaves generally alternate; rays 0–14; fruit elliptic to narrowly ovate

15. Petal tips narrowed, incurved; fruit prickly throughout or only on outer half; herbage hairy ..... TORILIS

15' Petal tips not narrowed, not incurved; fruit prickly throughout, tubercled, sharply scabrous, or glabrous; herbage glabrous or ± scabrous, not hairy

16. Involucel 0; fruit glabrous ..... CYCLOSPERMUM

16' Involucel present; fruit conspicuously bristly or sharply scabrous, at least on ribs

17. Inflorescence except fruits puberulent; fruit oblong-ovate ..... AMMOSELINUM

17' Inflorescence except fruits glabrous; fruit wide-ovate ..... SPERMOLEPIS

6' Perennial herb or biennial, from taproot or from persistent underground structures, not reproducing only from seed

18. Plant glabrous; generally in flooded to wet or moist (dry) soil

19. Stem generally conspicuously purple-spotted or -streaked; herbage musty-scented; fruit oil tubes not apparent ..... CONIUM (2)

19' Stem green or occasionally ± purple, unspotted; herbage not musty-scented; fruit oil tubes apparent

20. Stem from well-developed single or clustered tubers, or clustered, fibrous roots, generally not rooting at proximal nodes

21. Plant rhizomatous; sap from rhizome becoming ± red-brown in air ..... CICUTA

21' Plant not rhizomatous; sap from rhizome not changing color in air

22. Calyx lobes a persistent crown on fruit; fruit corky; fruit central axis not obvious ..... OENANTHE (2)

22' Calyx lobes evident but not a persistent crown on fruit; fruit not evidently corky; fruit central axis an apparent, separate structure

23. Fruit very compressed front-to-back, marginal ribs wide, thin-winged ..... OXYPOLIS

23' Fruit ± or not compressed side-to-side, ribs ± equal, thread-like to prominent but not clearly winged ..... PERIDERIDIA

20' Stem generally from stout taproot, or generally rooting at proximal nodes or along rhizomes, stolons

24. Calyx lobes a persistent crown on fruit; fruit central axis not obvious ..... OENANTHE (2)

24' Calyx lobes 0 or minute, generally not a persistent crown on fruit; fruit central axis an apparent, separate structure

25. Fruit halves not adhering to central axis; bracts, bractlets conspicuous to 0 ..... APIUM

25' Fruit halves generally adhering to central axis; bracts, bractlets conspicuous

26. Fruit ribs thread-like, inconspicuous in corky fruit wall ..... BERULA

26' Fruit ribs prominent, corky ..... SIUM

18' Plant glabrous or variously hairy; wet to dry soil

27. Herbage anise- or licorice-scented; leaf segments thread-like ..... FOENICULUM

27' Herbage scented or not, but not anise-scented; leaf segments wider than thread-like

28. Fruit ribs ± equal, none expanded as wings

29. Biennial of disturbed or cultivated places

30. Stems generally purple-spotted; cauline leaves like basal; fruit ribs prominent, wavy ..... CONIUM (2)

30' Stems unspotted; cauline leaves with more, narrower segments than basal; fruit ribs thread-like, not wavy ..... [PETROSELINUM]

29' Perennial herb of generally undisturbed places

31. Plant dwarfed, 2–15 cm; leaf segments not sharply serrate

32. Umbels not head-like; involucel inconspicuous, not 1-sided, bractlets 0 or free; calyx lobes 0; styles cylindric; plant erect or spreading, not cushion-forming; leaves loosely recurved or occasionally spreading at soil surface ..... OROGENIA (2)

32' Involucel conspicuous, 1-sided, bractlets generally partly fused; calyx lobes conspicuous or not; styles compressed, flattened; plants cushion-forming or leaves spreading at soil surface; umbels head-like

33. Herbage coarsely hairy to tomentose; sterile pedicels many, > fruit ..... OREONANA

33' Herbage thinly to densely puberulent; sterile pedicels 0–few, << fruit ..... PODISTERA

31' Plant not dwarfed, 10–120 cm, if < 20 cm, leaf segments sharply serrate

34. Fruit linear to oblong, 8–22 mm; fruit oil tubes obscure; roots licorice-scented ..... OSMORHIZA

34' Fruit oblong to round, 2–9 mm; fruit oil tubes evident, 1–5 per rib-interval; roots not licorice-scented

35. Corolla white; involucel generally 0, or < pedicels ..... LIGUSTICUM (2)

35' Corolla yellow; involucel present, generally > pedicels ..... TAUSCHIA

28' Fruit ribs equal or not, some expanded as definite wings

36. Ribs winged at margins of fruit halves, others not or more narrowly so; fruit compressed front-to-back

37. Plant robust, 1–3 m; outer petals of marginal flowers > others; oil tubes extending part-way to base of fruit ..... HERACLEUM

37' Plant not robust, generally < 1 m; outer petals of marginal flowers = others; oil tubes extending to base of fruit

38. Projection at ovary tip small, conic, persistent on fruit

39. Leaf 1–4-pinnately or -ternate-pinnately dissected or compound; corolla white; perennial herb ..... CONIOSELINUM

39' Leaf 1-pinnate; corolla yellow or orange; generally biennial, or perennial herb ..... PASTINACA

38' Projection at ovary tip 0

40. Marginal fruit wings thin or corky, not incurved; fruit axis divided to base ..... LOMATIUM

40' Marginal fruit wings very corky, incurved; fruit axis a corky ridge along middle of each fruit half ..... OROGENIA (2)

36' Ribs winged at margins of fruit halves, some others ± winged; fruit cylindric to ± compressed front-to-back or side-to-side (strongly compressed)

41. Plant low, generally spreading, stem generally 0; rays well developed or not; ovary tip projection 0

42. Plant erect or ± spreading; leaf adaxial surface generally glaucous, glabrous to scabrous or finely hairy, abaxial surface not tomentose; inland, generally dry places ..... CYMOPTERUS

42' Plant prostrate or ± spreading; leaf adaxial surface green, abaxial tomentose; seashore ..... GLEHNIA

41' Plant erect, stem generally present; rays well developed; ovary tip projection conic

43. Pedicels reduced to a disk; 2° umbels head-like ..... SPHENOSCIADIUM

43' Pedicels distinct or ± webbed at base, not reduced to a disk; 2° umbels open, not head-like

44. Stem base not fibrous; leaf segments generally coarse; fruit generally compressed front-to-back (± compressed to cylindric) ..... ANGELICA

44' Stem base conspicuously fibrous; leaf segments generally fine; fruit compressed side-to-side ..... LIGUSTICUM (2)

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