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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, perennial herb; sap milky.
Stem: erect, 1–8 dm, simple or few-branched.
Leaf: basal in rosette, oblanceolate, margin entire to pinnately lobed; cauline alternate, scale-like.
Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1–few, erect, terminal on stem, branches; involucre cylindric to bell-shaped in flower, elongating in fruit; phyllaries graduated in 4–5 series, reflexed when dry; receptacle flat to convex, paleate with thin membranous scales, glabrous.
Flower: generally many; ligules yellow, often ± red abaxially, readily withering.
Fruit: fusiform, ribbed, long-beaked, or outer cylindric, beakless; pappus of stiff, plumose bristles, or shorter outer bristles merely barbed, tawny or dull white.
± 60 species: Eurasia, n Africa, South America. (Greek: less than joyous, from weedy habit) [Bogler 2006 FNANM 19:297–299]
Unabridged note: Etymology differs from that in FNANM, where the etymology on the Greek 'choeris' for pig; the correct spelling is 'chaeris' for joy.
1. Annual, ± glabrous; ligules 5–8 mm, barely exceeding involucre; outer fruit cylindric, beakless, inner beaked ..... H. glabra
1' Perennial, rough-hairy; ligules 10–15 mm, much exceeding involucre; fruit all beaked ..... H. radicata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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