Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



John C. Semple

Annual to perennial herb, taprooted or with caudex or rhizome; herbage ± strigose-bristly or spreading-hairy, ± stalked-glandular, generally ± strongly aromatic. Stem: 1–many, ascending or erect, ± branched. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate; proximal petioled or sessile, oblanceolate to ovate, petiole or blade base generally ± spreading-long-hairy; distal ± reduced. Inflorescence: ± flat-topped to raceme- or panicle-like; heads discoid or generally radiate; involucre ± cylindric to bell- or urn-shaped; phyllaries ± graduated in ± 3–7 series; receptacle flat to slightly convex, pitted, epaleate. Ray flower: 0 or 10–40; ray yellow. Disk flower: many; corolla yellow; anther tip narrowly triangular; style tips narrowly triangular, papillate. Fruit: obconic; ray fruit ± 3-angled, pappus 0 or of bristles; disk fruit compressed, outer pappus of few to many bristle-like scales 0.2–1 mm, inner of 30–45 bristles in 2–3 series, 3–10 mm.
28 species: North America. (Greek: different cases, for ray and disk fruits of some species) [Semple 2006 FNANM 20:230–256]

Key to Heterotheca

1. Ray flowers 0; outer disk pappus scales few — generally dry streambeds ..... H. oregona

2. Leaves of branches sparsely hairy or scabrous, ± densely glandular

3. Leaves of branches generally > 13 mm, > 3 mm wide, sparsely hairy; outer phyllaries lance-deltate; Northwestern California, Central Western California ..... var. oregona

3' Leaves of branches generally < 13 mm, < 3 mm wide, ± scabrous; outer phyllaries ovate-deltate; San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California ..... var. scaberrima

2' Leaves of branches ± densely hairy, sparsely glandular

4. Stem generally branched proximal to middle; leaves long-soft-hairy and ± densely bristly, appearing gray-green; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California ..... var. compacta

4' Stem generally loosely branched distal to middle; leaves short-bristly, appearing green; Northwestern California, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California ..... var. rudis

1' Ray flowers present; outer disk pappus scales generally many

5. Ray fruit ± glabrous or minutely puberulent; ray pappus 0; annual to short-lived perennial herb

6. Distal leaves not clasping; ± California Floristic Province ..... H. grandiflora

6' Distal leaves clasping; Tehachapi Mountain Area, South Coast, e Sonoran Desert ..... H. subaxillaris subsp. latifolia

5' Ray fruit hairy; ray pappus present; perennial herb

7. Disk corolla lobes ± glabrous or sparsely minutely strigose; leaf stiff-hairy, margins flat or inrolled — Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, sw Desert Mountains

8. Stem generally 5–13 dm; mid-stem leaves lance-triangular, margin generally ± inrolled; inner pappus bristles <= disk corolla; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... H. shevockii

8' Stem (1)2–5 dm; mid-stem leaves (ob)lanceolate or narrowly lance-triangular, generally flat; inner pappus bristles generally >= disk corolla ..... H. villosa

9. Mid-stem leaves (ob)lanceolate, ± moderately strigose (not bristly), glandular; Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. minor

9' Mid-stem leaves narrowly lance-triangular, ± sparsely scabrous to bristly, ± densely glandular; sw Desert Mountains ..... var. scabra

7' Disk corolla lobes generally sparsely short- to long-hairy (coastal or San Francisco Bay Area plants sometimes ± glabrous); leaf stiff- or soft-hairy, margins often wavy

10. Stem 9–18 cm; distal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, little reduced, bases tapering; Sierra Nevada ..... H. monarchensis

10' Stem generally 20–70(130) cm; distal leaves narrowly to widely lanceolate (if oblanceolate then corolla lobe hairs to 1 mm), generally reduced, bases rounded; Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... H. sessiliflora

11. Margins of distal leaves flat to weakly wavy, leaf hairs ± 2 mm

12. Proximal stem sparsely woolly; distal leaves oblanceolate, little reduced, flat, strigose to long-woolly; c&s North Coast, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... subsp. bolanderi

12' Proximal stem bristly; distal leaves elliptic to lanceolate, generally much reduced, occasionally ± wavy-margined, strigose and bristly; generally inland c&s California ..... subsp. echioides

11' Margins of distal leaves distinctly wavy, leaf hairs ± 1 mm

13. Head not subtended by leaf-like bracts; distal leaves ± white, stiff; Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, w Mojave Desert, w Sonoran Desert > 100 m ..... subsp. fastigiata

13' Head subtended by large leaf-like bracts; distal leaves green, not stiff; s Central Coast, South Coast <= 60 m ..... subsp. sessiliflora


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.