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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to perennial herb, taprooted or with caudex or rhizome; herbage ± strigose-bristly or spreading-hairy, ± stalked- glandular, generally ± strongly aromatic.
Stem: 1–many, ascending or erect, ± branched.
Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate; proximal petioled or sessile, oblanceolate to ovate, petiole or blade base generally ± spreading-long-hairy; distal ± reduced.
Inflorescence: ± flat-topped to raceme- or panicle-like; heads discoid or generally radiate; involucre ± cylindric to bell- or urn-shaped; phyllaries ± graduated in ± 3–7 series; receptacle flat to slightly convex, pitted, epaleate.
Ray flower: 0 or 10–40; ray yellow.
Disk flower: many; corolla yellow; anther tip narrowly triangular; style tips narrowly triangular, papillate.
Fruit: obconic; ray fruit ± 3-angled, pappus 0 or of bristles; disk fruit compressed, outer pappus of few to many bristle-like scales 0.2–1 mm, inner of 30–45 bristles in 2–3 series, 3–10 mm.
28 species: North America. (Greek: different cases, for ray and disk fruits of some species) [Semple 2006 FNANM 20:230–256]
1. Ray flowers 0; outer disk pappus scales few — generally dry streambeds ..... H. oregona
2. Lvs of branches sparsely hairy or scabrous, ± densely glandular
3. Lvs of branches generally > 13 mm, > 3 mm wide, sparsely hairy; outer phyllaries lance-deltate; NW, CaR, CW ..... var. oregona
3' Lvs of branches generally < 13 mm, < 3 mm wide, ± scabrous; outer phyllaries ovate-deltate; SnJV, CW ..... var. scaberrima
2' Lvs of branches ± densely hairy, sparsely glandular
4. St generally branched proximal to middle; leaves long-soft-hairy and ± densely bristly, appearing gray-green; NW, CaR, n&c SNF, n SNH, SnJV, CW ..... var. compacta
4' St generally loosely branched distal to middle; leaves short-bristly, appearing green; NW, CaR, n SNF, CW ..... var. rudis
1' Ray flowers present; outer disk pappus scales generally many
5. Ray fruit ± glabrous or minutely puberulent; ray pappus 0; annual to short-lived perennial herb
6. Distal leaves not clasping; ± CA-FP ..... H. grandiflora
6' Distal leaves clasping; Teh, SCo, e DSon ..... H. subaxillaris subsp. latifolia
5' Ray fruit hairy; ray pappus present; perennial herb
7. Disk corolla lobes ± glabrous or sparsely minutely strigose; leaf stiff-hairy, margins flat or inrolled — CaR, SN, MP, sw DMtns
8. St generally 5–13 dm; mid-stem leaves lance-triangular, margin generally ± inrolled; inner pappus bristles <= disk corolla; s SNF ..... H. shevockii
8' St (1)2–5 dm; mid-stem leaves (ob)lanceolate or narrowly lance-triangular, generally flat; inner pappus bristles generally >= disk corolla ..... H. villosa
9. Mid-stem leaves (ob)lanceolate, ± moderately strigose (not bristly), glandular; CaR, SN, MP ..... var. minor
9' Mid-stem leaves narrowly lance-triangular, ± sparsely scabrous to bristly, ± densely glandular; sw DMtns ..... var. scabra
7' Disk corolla lobes generally sparsely short- to long-hairy (coastal or SnFrB plants sometimes ± glabrous); leaf stiff- or soft-hairy, margins often wavy
10. St 9–18 cm; distal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, little reduced, bases tapering; SN ..... H. monarchensis
10' St generally 20–70(130) cm; distal leaves narrowly to widely lanceolate (if oblanceolate then corolla lobe hairs to 1 mm), generally reduced, bases rounded; Teh, CW, SW ..... H. sessiliflora
11. Margins of distal leaves flat to weakly wavy, leaf hairs ± 2 mm
12. Proximal stem sparsely woolly; distal leaves oblanceolate, little reduced, flat, strigose to long-woolly; c&s NCo, n CCo, SnFrB ..... subsp. bolanderi
12' Proximal stem bristly; distal leaves elliptic to lanceolate, generally much reduced, occasionally ± wavy-margined, strigose and bristly; generally inland c&s CA ..... subsp. echioides
11' Margins of distal leaves distinctly wavy, leaf hairs ± 1 mm
13. Head not subtended by leaf-like bracts; distal leaves ± white, stiff; TR, PR, w DMoj, w DSon > 100 m ..... subsp. fastigiata
13' Head subtended by large leaf-like bracts; distal leaves green, not stiff; s CCo, SCo <= 60 m ..... subsp. sessiliflora
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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