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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

HETEROTHECA GOLDENASTER, TELEGRAPH WEED

John C. Semple


Annual to perennial herb, taprooted or with caudex or rhizome; herbage ± strigose-bristly or spreading-hairy, ± stalked-glandular, generally ± strongly aromatic. Stem: 1–many, ascending or erect, ± branched. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate; proximal petioled or sessile, oblanceolate to ovate, petiole or blade base generally ± spreading-long-hairy; distal ± reduced. Inflorescence: ± flat-topped to raceme- or panicle-like; heads discoid or generally radiate; involucre ± cylindric to bell- or urn-shaped; phyllaries ± graduated in ± 3–7 series; receptacle flat to slightly convex, pitted, epaleate. Ray flower: 0 or 10–40; ray yellow. Disk flower: many; corolla yellow; anther tip narrowly triangular; style tips narrowly triangular, papillate. Fruit: obconic; ray fruit ± 3-angled, pappus 0 or of bristles; disk fruit compressed, outer pappus of few to many bristle-like scales 0.2–1 mm, inner of 30–45 bristles in 2–3 series, 3–10 mm.
28 species: North America. (Greek: different cases, for ray and disk fruits of some species) [Semple 2006 FNANM 20:230–256]

Key to Heterotheca

1. Ray flowers 0; outer disk pappus scales few — generally dry streambeds ..... H. oregona

2. Leaves of branches sparsely hairy or scabrous, ± densely glandular

3. Leaves of branches generally > 13 mm, > 3 mm wide, sparsely hairy; outer phyllaries lance-deltate; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Central Western California ..... var. oregona

3' Leaves of branches generally < 13 mm, < 3 mm wide, ± scabrous; outer phyllaries ovate-deltate; San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California ..... var. scaberrima

2' Leaves of branches ± densely hairy, sparsely glandular

4. Stem generally branched proximal to middle; leaves long-soft-hairy and ± densely bristly, appearing gray-green; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California ..... var. compacta

4' Stem generally loosely branched distal to middle; leaves short-bristly, appearing green; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California ..... var. rudis

1' Ray flowers present; outer disk pappus scales generally many

5. Ray fruit ± glabrous or minutely puberulent; ray pappus 0; annual to short-lived per

6. Distal leaves not clasping; ± California Floristic Province ..... H. grandiflora

6' Distal leaves clasping; Tehachapi Mountain Area, South Coast, e Sonoran Desert ..... H. subaxillaris subsp. latifolia

5' Ray fruit hairy; ray pappus present; per

7. Disk corolla lobes ± glabrous or sparsely minutely strigose; leaf stiff-hairy, margins flat or inrolled — Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, sw Desert Mountains

8. Stem generally 5–13 dm; mid-stem leaves lance-triangular, margin generally ± inrolled; inner pappus bristles <= disk corolla; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... H. shevockii

8' Stem (1)2–5 dm; mid-stem leaves (ob)lanceolate or narrowly lance-triangular, generally flat; inner pappus bristles generally >= disk corolla ..... H. villosa

9. Mid-stem leaves (ob)lanceolate, ± moderately strigose (not bristly), glandular; Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... var. minor

9' Mid-stem leaves narrowly lance-triangular, ± sparsely scabrous to bristly, ± densely glandular; sw Desert Mountains ..... var. scabra

7' Disk corolla lobes generally sparsely short- to long-hairy (coastal or San Francisco Bay Area plants sometimes ± glabrous); leaf stiff- or soft-hairy, margins often wavy

10. Stem 9–18 cm; distal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, little reduced, bases tapering; Sierra Nevada ..... H. monarchensis

10' Stem generally 20–70(130) cm; distal leaves narrowly to widely lanceolate (if oblanceolate then corolla lobe hairs to 1 mm), generally reduced, bases rounded; Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... H. sessiliflora

11. Margins of distal leaves flat to weakly wavy, leaf hairs ± 2 mm

12. Proximal stem sparsely woolly; distal leaves oblanceolate, little reduced, flat, strigose to long-woolly; c&s North Coast, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... subsp. bolanderi

12' Proximal stem bristly; distal leaves elliptic to lanceolate, generally much reduced, occasionally ± wavy-margined, strigose and bristly; generally inland c&s California ..... subsp. echioides

11' Margins of distal leaves distinctly wavy, leaf hairs ± 1 mm

13. Head not subtended by leaf-like bracts; distal leaves ± white, stiff; Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, w Mojave Desert, w Sonoran Desert > 100 m ..... subsp. fastigiata

13' Head subtended by large leaf-like bracts; distal leaves green, not stiff; s Central Coast, South Coast <= 60 m ..... subsp. sessiliflora

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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