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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Abigail J. Moore

[Annual] perennial herb to subshrub from taproot or woody caudex, glabrous or tomentose, often glandular-sticky. Leaf: simple, alternate, generally not fleshy, entire, crenate, serrate, or pinnately lobed, gland-dotted. Inflorescence: heads generally radiate (discoid); involucre obconic to hemispheric, generally gummy; phyllaries in 4–10 graduated series; receptacle flat to convex, ± pitted, epaleate. Ray flower: 0–60; corolla yellow. Disk flower: corolla yellow; anther tip lanceolate; style-branch appendages linear to lanceolate, generally >= stigmatic portion. Fruit: cylindric or swollen-obconic, shiny-white to ± brown, smooth or ridged, glabrous; pappus of 1–6 narrow awns (occasionally construed as bristle-like) [25–40 bristles], ± < disk corolla, generally entire, deciduous.
± 60 species: central and western North America, South America. (D.H. Grindel, Latvian botanist, 1776–1836) [Strother & Wetter 2006 FNANM 20:424–436] Variable. Morphologically intermediate plants common where species ranges overlap. Strother & Wetter treated all California species except Grindelia squarrosa and Grindelia fraxinipratensis in Grindelia hirsutula. Grindelia ciliata (Nutt.) Spreng. [Prionopsis ciliata (Nutt.) Nutt.], with pappus of many united bristles (falling as a unit), is an historical waif from northern Central Coast, northern South Coast.

Key to Grindelia

1. Leaves crenate, each tooth with a distinct, ± yellow bump near tip ..... G. squarrosa var. serrulata

1' Leaves entire or serrate; if serrate, ± yellow bump near tip of teeth 0;

2. Plants of dunes, salt marshes, coastal bluffs, tidal flats, sloughs; leaves ± fleshy; North Coast to South Coast, deltaic Great Central Valley (Suisun)

3. Stems woody in proximal 3–15 dm, erect; phyllaries appressed to head except for short, erect tips, tip < 3 mm long; tidal wetlands; Central Coast (San Francisco Bay) ..... G. stricta var. angustifolia

3' Stems herbaceous or woody in proximal 0–1 dm, erect, decumbent, or prostrate; phyllaries generally spreading, recurved, or coiled; widespread

4. Stems erect, 6–20 dm; salt marshes, sloughs

5. Leaves on flowering stems generally widest at base or of ± equal width throughout; Deltaic Great Central Valley (Suisun) ..... G. ×paludosa

5' Leaves on flowering stems generally widest at rounded tip or ± equally wide at tip and base but narrower in middle of leaf; North Coast ..... G. stricta var. stricta (2)

4' Stems prostrate, decumbent, or erect, if erect, stems 1–6 dm; dunes, coastal bluffs

6. Plants decumbent or erect; leaves generally sessile, sometimes clasping stems, ± same width throughout or widest near base; North Coast to South Coast, Channel Islands ..... G. stricta var. platyphylla

6' Plants decumbent; leaves generally tapered to petioles, widest at rounded tip; North Coast ..... G. stricta var. stricta (2)

2' Plants of fields, grassland, woodland, serpentine soils, disturbed areas, or interior wetlands; leaves not fleshy; widespread (absent from Suisun delta)

7. Phyllaries flattened throughout, gradually tapered to tips; phyllary tips erect; plants generally ± hairy

8. Heads 7–10 mm diam; rays 8–9 mm; Peninsular Ranges (San Diego Co.) ..... G. hallii (2)

8' Involucres 7–25 mm diam; rays 8–20 mm; North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Transverse Ranges ..... G. hirsutula

7' Phyllaries flattened only at bases, rounded in ×-section distally, abruptly narrowed to tips; phyllary tips spreading, reflexed, or coiled; plants generally glabrous

9. Heads ± obconic; e Mojave Desert, wet clay of meadows, woodland borders ..... G. fraxinipratensis

9' Heads bell-shaped or hemispheric, widening abruptly at the base; widespread

10. Phyllaries appressed to head for > 3/4 length, reflexed or coiled portion < 3 mm; Peninsular Ranges (San Diego Co.) ..... G. hallii (2)

10' Phyllaries appressed to head for < 1/2 length, spreading, reflexed, or coiled portion > 5 mm; widespread

11. Outer phyllaries reflexed, curved, or coiled < 270° ..... G. camporum (2)

11' > 75% of phyllaries coiled or recurved 270–360° or more

12. Plants 6–25 dm; mature involucre bell-shaped to hemispheric, 15–22 mm diam; San Joaquin Valley, South Coast (geog subset of sp.) ..... G. camporum (2)

12' Plants 1–5 dm; mature involucre bell-shaped, 7–12 mm diam; Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... G. nana


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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