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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ERICAMERIA GOLDENBUSH, RABBITBRUSH

Lowell E. Urbatsch


Subshrub, shrub, <= 5 m, resinous, generally gland-dotted. Stem: generally ascending to erect, glabrous to woolly; often resin-dotted and resin-coated, stalked-glandular in some. Leaf: alternate, thread-like to elliptic or wedge-shaped, entire. Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid, 1 or variously clustered; involucre cylindric, obconic, or bell-shaped; phyllaries in 2–7 series, ± lanceolate to ovate, generally resinous, persistent when dry, tips erect to recurved, obtuse to acuminate or tailed, midrib often thickened with a resin gland; ± flat to convex, pitted, epaleate. Ray flower: 0–30; corolla 2–12 mm, generally yellow (white). Disk flower: 4–70+; corolla 3–11 mm, generally yellow (white); anther tips narrowly triangular to awl-like; style tips lanceolate to awl-shaped. Fruit: 2–8 mm, cylindric to ellipsoid or ± obconic, generally angled, ribbed; pappus of minutely barbed bristles in 1 series.
± 36 species: western North America. (Greek: golden shrub) [Urbatsch et al. 2006 FNANM 20:50–77] Most species flower summer/fall. Some hybridization among species.

Key to Ericameria

1. Phyllaries ± equal length, leaf-like or paper-like; sometimes each outer phyllary with a leaf-like or paper-like tip

2. Ray flowers generally 1–18 (sometimes 0 in Ericameria greenei)

3. Leaves glabrous to ± short-hairy, dotted with sessile or blister-like glands sunken in deep, round pits, resinous

4. Heads in leafy spike-, raceme-, or narrow, panicle-like clusters; peduncles 1–15 mm; flowers 5–19 ..... E. bloomeri

4' Heads solitary; peduncle 20–70 mm, bracts generally 0; flowers 28–78 ..... E. linearifolia

3' Leaves glabrous, tomentose, or stalked-glandular, glands not in pits, often resinous

5. Heads in congested, cyme- or raceme-like clusters; disk flowers 7–20 ..... E. greenei

5' Heads 1 or 2–3 in leafy, raceme-like clusters; disk flowers 15–40 ..... E. suffruticosa

2' Ray flowers 0

6. Leaves with spreading, gland-tipped hairs

7. Stem densely, silvery-white tomentose; leaves generally oblanceolate, 2–7 mm wide, margins often wavy; phyllary tips erect ..... E. discoidea

7' Stem white to ± green, closely tomentose, hairs tightly matted; leaves generally linear, 1–3 mm wide, margins flat or rolled under, not wavy; phyllary tips erect to spreading ..... E. parryi var. aspera

6' Leaves ± glabrous or ± white tomentose, hairs ± tightly-matted, not stalked-glandular ..... E. parryi (in part)

8. Leaves 5–14 mm wide ..... var. latior

8' Leaves 0.5–3 mm wide

9. Heads 1–2(4) at branch tips, generally overtopped by distal-most leaves ..... var. monocephala

9' Heads (2)4–20+, generally not overtopped by distal-most leaves

10. Flowers 10–18 per head; outer phyllaries sometimes leaf-like; San Bernardino Mountains (Bear Valley) ..... var. imula

10' Flowers 4–7 per head; outer phyllaries paper-like; High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, San Bernardino Mountains, Desert Mountains

11. Phyllary tips ± recurved ..... var. nevadensis

11' Phyllary tips erect to spreading ..... var. vulcanica

1' Phyllaries unequal in a graduated series, paper-like or outer wholly leaf-like or with leaf-like tips or subapical patches

12. Ray flowers generally (0)1–10(30)

13. Ray and disk corollas white; outer and mid phyllary tips abruptly pointed, spreading or recurved, leaf-like, arising from obtuse to notched summit of phyllary body; leaf oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, often folded, 2–4 mm wide; Inyo Co. ..... E. gilmanii

13' Ray and disk corollas yellow; phyllary tips acuminate, acute to rounded or abruptly pointed, erect, sometimes leaf-like

14. Mid phyllaries < 1 mm wide

15. Style appendage ± = stigma; rays 0–3; flower Mar–Jun ..... E. cooperi var. cooperi (2)

15' Style appendage > stigma; rays 1–20; flower (Jul)Aug–Dec

16. Mid phyllary midvein scarcely evident to slightly raised and slightly widened toward tip; disk flowers 4–8; fruit glabrous to densely hairy ..... E. nana (2)

16' Mid phyllary midvein conspicuously raised throughout its length or on the distal 1/2 and slightly to greatly widened toward tip; disk flowers 5–20; fruit hairy

17. Mid phyllary tips acute to long-acuminate; midvein generally prominently raised along phyllary length, slightly widened toward tip; heads in cyme-like clusters; Desert Mountains ..... E. laricifolia (2)

17' Mid phyllary tips rounded to acute; midvein generally distally prominently raised as a much darker, abaxial, narrowly obovate structure, proximal portion of midvein not noticeably raised or not at all evident; heads in raceme- to panicle-like clusters; South Coast, Sonoran Desert ..... E. palmeri

18. Leaves 5–20(30) mm; axillary leaves 2–10 per node; outer and mid phyllaries strongly thickened near tip; midveins often not evident on proximal 1/2 of each phyllary; flowers 6–12(14); Riverside to Ventura cos. ..... var. pachylepis

18' Leaves 20–40 mm; axillary leaves 1–2 per node; phyllary tips not strongly thickened; midveins generally evident on proximal 1/2 of each phyllary; flowers 12–30; San Diego Co. ..... var. palmeri

14' Mid phyllaries > 1.0 mm wide

19. Style appendage ± = stigma; rays 0–3; flower Mar–Jun ..... E. cooperi var. cooperi (2)

19' Style appendage >= stigma; rays 1–30; flower (Jul)Aug–Dec (Ericameria pinifolia occasionally flowering in spring)

20. Mid phyllary midvein scarcely evident to slightly raised and slightly widened distally; phyllary margins entire, glabrous; disk flrs 4–8; leaves without regularly spaced deep resin pits; Desert Mountains ..... E. nana (2)

20' Mid phyllary midvein prominently raised on distal 1/2 or throughout length of phyllary; phyllary margins entire, glabrous or ciliate to fringed; disk flowers 6–25; leaves generally with regularly spaced deep resin pits

21. Mid phyllary tips acute to long-acuminate; midvein generally prominently raised throughout phyllary length, slightly widened distally; margins glabrous or ciliate; Desert Mountains ..... E. laricifolia (2)

21' Mid phyllary tips mucronate to long-acuminate; margins ciliate, fringed, or irregularly toothed; widespread

22. Tips of outermost phyllaries rounded, acute, acuminate, or abruptly pointed; fruit generally silky to densely hairy ..... E. fasciculata

22' Tips of outermost phyllaries generally abruptly pointed, leaf-like; fruit glabrous or hairy, more densely distally

23. Leaves 3–18(23) mm; ray flowers 2–6; disk flowers 5–14; generally dunes or sand hills along or near coast (occasionally inland), Sonoma to Los Angeles cos. ..... E. ericoides

23' Leaves 10–40 mm; ray flowers 3–10 in fall, 15–30 in spring; disk flowers 11–25; sandy to stony, often disturbed soils away from immediate coast, Ventura Co. and s ..... E. pinifolia

12' Rays 0(7)

24. Leaves wedge-shaped, obovate, or spoon-shaped, 2–16 mm wide, tips generally obtuse, rounded, or notched ..... E. cuneata

25. Disk flowers 36–70 — San Diego Co. ..... var. macrocephala

25' Disk flowers 7–33

26. Leaves sessile, blades wedge-shaped, largest 3–14(18) mm, 2–9(12) mm wide ..... var. cuneata

26' Leaves stalked, blades spoon-shaped, largest (9)12–25 mm, 4–16 mm wide ..... var. spathulata

24' Leaves thread-like, linear, elliptic, oblanceolate, or oblong, 0.3–12 mm wide, tips acute

27. Leaves and often young stem dotted with round, ± evenly spaced, resin-filled pits

28. Outer and mid phyllaries with leaf-like, recurved tips; corolla white ..... E. albida

28' Outer and mid-level phyllary tips rounded to acute or acuminate; corolla yellow

29. Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, flat to slightly concave, 3–12 mm wide ..... E. parishii var. parishii

29' Leaves thread-like to narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, grooved, 0.5–3 mm wide

30. Phyllaries thin, midvein often evident but not raised or enlarged at tip ..... E. paniculata

30' Phyllary midvein obscure or very prominently raised and expanded at tip

31. Phyllary midvein generally obscure proximal 1/2, tip bearing a prominent, ± spheric resin gland ..... E. teretifolia

31' Phyllary midvein prominently raised and expanded at tip

32. Leaves 25–90 mm; heads in flat-topped or convex cyme-like clusters, peduncle 1–15 mm, bracts 0–7, scale-like; flowers 10–25 ..... E. arborescens

32' Leaves 10–25 mm; heads 1 or in raceme- to panicle-like clusters, peduncle 3–20 mm, leafy or bracted; disk flowers 6–16(22) ..... E. brachylepis

27' Leaves and young stem lacking round resin pits

33. Phyllaries spiraled, outermost leaf-like, inner parchment-like, bodies of outer and mid phyllaries with tooth-like, spreading to recurved tips; Shasta, Tehama, and Trinity cos., serpentine soils ..... E. ophitidis

33' Phyllaries generally aligned vertically, dry, paper-like (if spiraled, outer and mid phyllary tips not tooth-like); tips long-tapered, erect or recurved; widespread, often abundant on various soils ..... E. nauseosa

34. Fruit glabrous ..... var. leiosperma

34' Fruit hairy, ± long-hairy or silky (only distally in Ericameria nauseosa var. washoensis)

35. Style appendages generally < stigmas (± =)

36. Corolla lobes 0.5–1 mm ..... var. hololeuca

36' Corolla lobes 1.5–2.5 mm

37. Phyllary tips recurved — s California ..... var. ceruminosa

37' Phyllary tips erect ..... var. oreophila

35' Style appendages > stigmas

38. Corolla lobes sparsely long-hairy; fruit distally hairy ..... var. washoensis

38' Corolla lobes ± glabrous; fruit hairy throughout

39. Stem loosely tomentose, gray-white to dark green; leaves present at flower ..... var. speciosa

39' Stem closely tomentose with tightly matted hairs, generally ± yellow-green, sometimes becoming ± white; leaves present or 0 at flower

40. Stem generally leafy at flower; leaves 20–60 mm ..... var. bernardina

40' Stem nearly leafless at flower; leaves 10–30 mm ..... var. mohavensis

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Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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