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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



David J. Keil & Curtis Clark

[Subshrub], shrub. Stem: generally many from base. Leaf: alternate, generally drought-deciduous, simple, petioled, entire or rarely toothed. Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid, 1 or in panicle-like cluster; peduncle generally long; involucre hemispheric; phyllaries graduated in 2–4+ series, free; receptacle paleate, palea folded around and falling with fruit. Ray flower: sterile; style 0; ray yellow. Disk flower: many; corolla yellow or brown-purple, tube slender, throat abruptly expanded, lobes triangular; anther tip ovate, ± acute; style tips triangular. Fruit: strongly compressed, obovate or wedge-shaped; edges long-ciliate; faces glabrous or short-hairy; pappus of 2 narrow scales or 0.
11–12 species: western North America, western South America. (Christoph Entzelt, German naturalist, 1517–1583) [Clark 2006 FNANM 21:118–122; Fehlberg & Ranker 2007 Syst Bot 32:692–699] Commonly hybridizing, especially in disturbed areas; Encelia farinosa × Encelia frutescens is common; Encelia farinosa × Encelia californica, Encelia farinosa × Encelia actoni, Encelia actoni × Encelia frutescens, Encelia frutescens × Encelia virginensis, Encelia farinosa × Geraea canescens have been reported.

Key to Encelia

1. Heads in panicle-like cluster, always radiate; leaves ± hairy, hairs curled

2. Heads 3–9 in tight panicle-like cluster; rays well developed; leaves densely silver- or gray-tomentose, not at all strigose ..... E. farinosa

2' Heads 2–5 in loose panicle-like cluster; rays often short, few, deeply lobed; leaves moderately hairy, often partly strigose ..... [E. farinosa × E. frutescens]

1' Heads generally solitary, radiate or discoid; leaves glabrous or hairy

3. Disk corolla brown-purple; leaves green, glabrous to sparsely and minutely strigose or bristly ..... E. californica

3' Disk corolla yellow or orange; leaves green to gray, glabrous or hairy

4. Ray flowers 0; leaves green, strigose but not canescent ..... E. frutescens

4' Ray flowers present; leaves gray-green to green, canescent

5. Leaves silvery green, canescent, not at all strigose; ray flowers 14–25, ray 10–25 mm, shallowly toothed; sw San Joaquin Valley and adjacent Western Transverse Ranges (Cuyama Valley), White and Inyo Mountains, w Desert and adjacent California Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... E. actoni

5' Leaves sparsely strigose and lightly soft-canescent; ray flowers 11–21, ray 8–15 mm, deeply toothed; e Mojave Desert, Desert Mountains ..... E. virginensis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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