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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



David Bogler

Annual to perennial herb from taproot, woody caudex, or creeping rhizome; sap milky. Stem: 1–20+, erect, <= 12 dm, simple or branched, glabrous to densely hairy, sometimes stalked-glandular. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, base narrowed, often winged, blade entire or toothed to pinnately lobed or divided. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, generally in cyme-like, flat-topped, or panicle-like clusters; phyllaries in 2 series, outer reduced, inner ± equal, abaxially glabrous or hairy, adaxially generally glabrous; receptacle flat to convex, epaleate, shallowly pitted. Flower: 5–100+; corolla generally yellow [orange, white, pink], generally glabrous; ligule readily withering. Fruit: ± cylindric or fusiform, distally ± tapered or beaked with ± distinct constriction, 10–20-ribbed, glabrous or minutely short-rough hairy; pappus of 80–150 soft, hair-like bristles.
± 200 species: especially northern hemisphere. (Greek: slipper or sandal, perhaps for fruit) [Bogler 2006 FNANM 19:222–239] {hort link} Reports of Crepis rubra L. from Marin Co. not substantiated.
Unabridged note: Sexual forms of native species are distinct but (except Crepis nana, Crepis runcinata) connected by many apomictic, asexually reproducing forms of hybrid origin that obscure boundaries. Many of these asexual forms were grouped into subspecies by Babcock and Stebbins (1947); however, it is doubtful that these will hold up under close taxonomic scrutiny.

Key to Crepis

1. Annual or biennial (perennial herb); base of plant generally not strongly swollen or woody (except some Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia); taproot shallow, fibrous roots present

2. Fruit ± beakless

3. Involucre 5–8 mm; inner phyllaries with double row of ± black stalked glands along abaxial midrib, glabrous adaxially; fruit ± brown-yellow ..... C. capillaris

3' Involucre 6–9 mm; inner phyllaries minutely tomentose to short-hairy abaxially, minutely hairy adaxially; fruit ± dark red- or purple-brown ..... C. tectorum

2' Fruit, at least inner, distinctly beaked

4. Fruits of 2 forms, outer beakless, inner finely beaked ..... C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (2)

4' Fruits all similar, beaked

5. Stem coarsely long- or short-hairy; cauline leaf blade sagittate, sharply lobed; phyllaries not reflexed; fruit ± red-brown, beak 1–2 mm ..... C. setosa

5' Stem short-hairy or tomentose to ± glabrous, not coarsely long-hairy; cauline leaves sessile, clasping but not sagittate and sharply lobed; phyllaries reflexed at maturity; fruit pale brown to yellow, beak 2–5 mm ..... C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (2)

1' Perennial herb; base of plant swollen and ± woody; taproot (or creeping rhizome) well developed, deep

6. Plant entirely glabrous (leaves occasionally puberulent in Crepis bursifolia)

7. Stem flexible, arched or decumbent, cymosely branched distally; leaves generally pinnately divided; heads 2–3; beak of fruit ± 2 × body; disturbed areas ..... [C. bursifolia]

7' Stem ± erect or ascending, generally branched; leaves generally round to spoon- or fiddle-shaped, entire or few-toothed to shallowly lobed; heads 5–10(100); fruit tapered but not beaked; alpine ..... C. nana

6' Plant generally ± hairy (Crepis runcinata sometimes glabrous)

8. Leaves generally dentate, sometimes pinnately lobed ..... C. runcinata

9. Leaf green, teeth prominently white-tipped; inner phyllaries widely lanceolate or elliptic to oblong ..... subsp. andersonii

9' Leaf glaucous, teeth not prominently white-tipped; inner phyllaries linear to narrowly lanceolate ..... subsp. hallii

8' Leaves generally pinnately lobed or divided or sharply serrate

10. Herbage and involucres coarsely hairy, hairs 1–3 mm; phyllaries acute or long-acuminate

11. Herbage and involucres densely coarse-hairy and stalked-glandular; inner phyllaries long-acuminate ..... C. monticola

11' Herbage and involucres bristly and ± short-tomentose, generally not stalked-glandular; inner phyllaries acute (see 13. for vars.) ..... C. modocensis (2)

10' Herbage and involucres ± short-tomentose, hairs or bristles generally < 1 mm; phyllaries acute

12. Inner phyllaries with ± black, ± white, or green bristles; fruit ± dark green to deep red, dark brown or ± black, weakly ribbed or striate ..... C. modocensis (2)

13. Stem branched near or distal to middle; involucre 11–16 mm; pappus 5–10 mm ..... subsp. modocensis

13' Stem low, branched near base; involucre 13–21 mm; pappus 9–13 mm ..... subsp. subacaulis

12' Inner phyllaries generally glabrous, tomentose, or less often short-stalked-glandular or with few black bristles; fruit ± yellow, light to dark brown, red-brown, or deep green, distinctly ribbed

14. Largest heads with 5–8 inner phyllaries; flowers generally 5–10

15. Cauline leaves well developed; heads 30–70(100+) in compound flat-topped cluster; inner phyllaries generally glabrous or occasionally evenly tomentose, not strongly keeled; fruit ± yellow or yellow-brown ..... C. acuminata

15' Cauline leaves much reduced; heads 7–10(30) in small cyme-like cluster; inner phyllaries conspicuously white-tomentose near margins, bases becoming strongly keeled, midrib generally glabrous; fruit red-brown ..... C. pleurocarpa

14' Largest heads with 7–14 inner phyllaries; flowers 6–40

16. Plant 25–60 cm; heads generally > 20, in large ± flat-topped or panicle-like cluster; involucre 3–5 mm diam; flowers 7–12 ..... C. intermedia

16' Plant 5–40 cm; heads generally < 20 in cyme-like or panicle-like cluster; involucre 5–15 mm diam; flowers 10–40

17. Herbage green, stalked-glandular; leaf midribs often conspicuously red-purple when fresh; inner phyllaries conspicuously stalked-glandular (glabrous) ..... C. bakeri

18. Involucre narrowly cylindric to ± obconic, 18–21 mm in fruit; outer phyllaries deltate, longest << inner; pappus > fruit ..... subsp. idahoensis

18' Involucre widely cylindric, 13–20 mm in fruit; outer phyllaries lanceolate, longest ± 1/2 inner; pappus ± <= fruit

19. Involucre 16–20 mm in fruit; fruit 8–10.5 mm, tip slightly tapered; pappus 9–10.5 mm ..... subsp. bakeri

19' Involucre 13–17 mm in fruit; fruit 6–9 mm, tip strongly tapered; pappus 6–9 mm ..... subsp. cusickii

17' Herbage ± gray-tomentose, stalked-glandular or not; leaf midribs not red-purple, inconspicuous; phyllaries stalked-glandular or not ..... C. occidentalis

20. Inner phyllaries with at least some stalked glands

21. Inner phyllaries, peduncles, and distal cauline leaves stalked-glandular and with large dark or black bristles; largest heads with 8 inner phyllaries and 12–14 flowers ..... subsp. costata

21' Inner phyllaries, peduncles and distal cauline leaves stalked-glandular, but lacking large dark or black glandular bristles; largest heads with 10–13 inner phyllaries and 18–30 flowers ..... subsp. occidentalis

20' Inner phyllaries glandless, or if with a few stalked glands then involucre with 8 phyllaries

22. Stem generally low, 5–20 cm, branched near base; inner phyllaries 8–12; leaves deeply pinnately lobed, lobes narrow, remote, lanceolate, few-toothed ..... subsp. conjuncta

22' Stem well developed, 10–40 cm, with definite primary axis below heads; inner phyllaries generally 8; leaves strongly dentate or pinnately lobed, lobes closely spaced ..... subsp. pumila


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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