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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to subshrub (2)5–70(200) cm; proximal stem and leaves glabrous to variously hairy.
Stem: 1, erect, or 2–25+, prostrate to ascending, simple or branched.
Leaf: simple, alternate, often crowded proximally, petioled, generally ± elliptic to ovate or obovate, generally deeply 1–4-pinnately lobed, occasionally entire (then linear), lobes generally not or scarcely overlapping; distal generally ± reduced.
Inflorescence: heads discoid or radiant, 1–25+ per stem, generally in terminal cyme-like cluster; peduncle generally erect, hairs generally as on phyllary bases; involucre generally <= 15 mm diam, cylindric to obconic or hemispheric; phyllaries in 1–2 ± = series, generally linear to lanceolate, persistent, tips generally ± flat, generally ± green; receptacle flat to rounded, glabrous, generally epaleate.
Flower: 8–70+; corolla white, ± pink, or yellow, generally open during day; anthers generally exserted, tips lanceolate to ovate; style tips linear, minutely bristly.
Fruit: ± club-shaped, generally not compressed, ± hairy; pappus 0, crown-like, or generally of (1)4–20 persistent, ± fringed scales in 1–4 series, scales often fewer and/or shorter on outer fruit.
18 species: w North America. (Greek: gaping ray, for enlarged outer corollas of type sp.) [Morefield 2006 FNANM 21:400–414] Spp. of sect. Chaenactis hybridize, especially in SCoRI/s SnJV, where identification can be difficult.
1. Perennial (biennial) or subshrub, rarely flowering first yr; inner fruit pappus generally of 10–20 scales in 3–4 ± equal series; leaf blade gland-pitted under hairs; heads discoid (sect. Macrocarphus)
2. Lvs generally cauline (also basal in Chaenactis douglasii); heads not scapose, (1)2–25+ per stem; plants not or scarcely cespitose or matted
3. Perennial or biennial, rarely flowering first yr or slightly woody; proximal hairs cobwebby to tomentose, ± gray, thinning with age; basal leaves generally persistent, largest leaf blades ± elliptic, not flat ..... C. douglasii var. douglasii
3' Generally subshrub; proximal hairs (especially stems) ± felty, ± white, persistent; basal leaves generally 0, largest leaf blades ± deltate, ± flat
4. Longest phyllaries 10–13 mm, outer ± tomentose, not or scarcely glandular; e PR ..... C. parishii
4' Longest phyllaries 14–18 mm, outer generally glandular-hairy, other hairs 0 or scarce; e KR, n CaRH ..... C. suffrutescens (2)
2' Lvs ± basal; heads ± scapose, 1(3) per stem; plants cespitose to ± matted
5. Outer phyllaries silky-tomentose, nonglandular ..... C. alpigena
5' Outer phyllaries generally glandular-hairy, often also cobwebby to woolly or shaggy-hairy
6. Largest leaf blades ± deltate to ovate, ± flat; 1° lobes generally 2–4(5) pairs, tips ± flat
7. Plant 2–10(12) cm; leaves 2.5–5 cm; longest phyllaries 9–12(14) mm; corolla 5.5–8 mm; longest pappus scales 3–5 mm ..... C. nevadensis
7' Plant (10)25–45(60) cm; leaves 5–10 cm; longest phyllaries 14–18 mm; corolla 8.5–10 mm; longest pappus scales 7–9 mm ..... C. suffrutescens (2)
6' Largest leaf blades ± elliptic or cylindric to ± fusiform, not flat; 1° lobes (4)5–18+ pairs, tips curled and/or twisted
8. Largest leaf blades ± elliptic; 1° lobes (4)5–9(12) pairs, not or scarcely overlapping ..... C. douglasii var. alpina
8' Largest leaf blades cylindric to ± fusiform; 1° lobes (7)10–18+ pairs, ± overlapping ..... C. santolinoides
1' Annual; inner fruit pappus 0, crown-like, or of 4(5) or (7)8 scales in 1 or 2 unequal series, outer << inner; leaf blades (except Chaenactis macrantha) not gland-pitted; heads discoid or radiant
9. Proximal hairs mealy, scaly, or powdery; largest leaf blades generally ± deltate, (2)3–4-pinnately lobed (sect. Acarphaea)
10. Phyllary tips acute or scarcely acuminate, ± flat, ± green; leaf lobe tips ± flat; receptacle epaleate; fruit compressed; pappus 0 or longest scales <= 0.5 mm ..... C. artemisiifolia
10' All or inner phyllary tips long-acuminate, needle-like, ± red; leaf lobe tips ± cylindric; receptacle paleate; fruit not compressed; longest inner fruit pappus scales generally 3–5 mm ..... C. carphoclinia
11. Lvs basal and cauline, longest 1–6(7) cm; petiole slender, flexible, base scarcely enlarged ..... var. carphoclinia
11' Lvs generally basal, longest 7–10 cm; petiole thick, stiff, base strongly enlarged ..... var. peirsonii
9' Proximal hairs cobwebby to woolly or 0; largest leaf blades linear, entire, or ± elliptic (to ovate), 1–2-pinnately lobed (sect. Chaenactis)
12. Corolla white to ± pink or rarely pale yellow; generally in or near GB, D
13. Heads radiant; peduncle distally generally glandular-hairy, or ± glabrous in fruit; outer corollas bilateral, spreading, > inner; inner fruit pappus generally of 4 scales in 1 series
14. Longest pappus 6–8.5 mm, exceeding corolla, tips visible among buds; proximal hairs 0 by flower time; largest leaf blades entire or 1-pinnately lobed, lobes generally 1–2(5) pairs; outer phyllaries ± glabrous in fruit, tip acute ..... C. fremontii
14' Longest pappus 1.5–6 mm, not exceeding corolla, tips hidden; proximal hairs persisting at least at nodes by flower time; largest leaf blades generally 1–2-pinnately lobed, 1° lobes 4–8 pairs; outer phyllaries glandular-hairy and/or ± cobwebby in fruit, tip ± obtuse ..... C. stevioides
13' Heads discoid; peduncle nonglandular; outer corollas radial, spreading or not, ± = inner; pappus of (6)8 scales in 2 unequal series, outer << inner
15. Corolla open at night, anthers ± included; inner corollas 9–12(15) mm, 1.8–2.2 × fruit; leaf blades ± gland-pitted under hairs ..... C. macrantha
15' Corolla open during day, anthers exserted; inner corolla 4–10 mm, ± = fruit; leaf blades not gland-pitted
16. Longest phyllaries 10–18 mm, outer nonglandular, glabrous proximally, densely puberulent distally, tip generally recurved, flexible; pappus scales 8 ..... C. xantiana
16' Longest phyllaries 4.5–10(12) mm, outer generally glandular-hairy, hairs otherwise various, uniform, tip erect, stiff; pappus scales generally < 8 (hybrids; see genus note)
12' Corolla bright to dark yellow; generally CA-FP ..... C. glabriuscula
17. Inner fruit pappus generally of 7–8 scales in 2 series, outer << inner ..... var. heterocarpha
17' Inner fruit pappus generally of 4 scales in 1 series
18. Proximal hairs tomentose to woolly, ± white; leaves ± basal, persistent ..... var. lanosa
18' Proximal hairs 0 or ± cobwebby, ± gray; leaves basal (withering) and cauline
19. Largest leaf blades generally 2-pinnately lobed, fleshy; stem ± spreading; SCo, coastal dunes, bluffs ..... var. orcuttiana
19' Largest leaf blades 1(2)-pinnately lobed, scarcely fleshy; stem erect to ascending; inland from coast
20. Longest phyllaries 5–7 mm, 1–2 mm wide, outer ± silky-cobwebby at least medially in fruit, often also ± glandular-hairy; longest pappus 2–4 mm, 0.4–0.7 × corolla ..... var. glabriuscula
20' Longest phyllaries 7–9 mm, 2–3 mm wide, outer becoming glabrous in fruit; longest pappus generally 5–8 mm, ± 0.9(1) × corolla ..... var. megacephala
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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