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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ACANTHACEAE ACANTHUS FAMILY

Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Lawrence R. Heckard, except as noted


[Annual, perennial herb to] shrub, [tree], nodes generally swollen. Leaf: simple, generally opposite, entire (toothed [lobed]); stipules 0. Inflorescence: variable, with bracts, generally also bractlets. Flower: bisexual; calyx deeply (3)4–5 lobed [(sepals free)]; corolla 4–5 lobed, radial to 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, anther sacs sometimes dissimilar in size or placement; ovary superior, 4–many-ovuled, chambers 1–2, placentas axile (free central), stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2. Seed: 1–4[+], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit.
220 genera, 4000 species: especially tropics; some ornamental: Justicia (Beloperone, shrimp-plant), Acanthus, Thunbergia. [Daniel 1998 Proc Calif Acad Sci 50:217–256; Hilu et al. 2003 Amer J Bot 90:1758–1766; Schwarzbach & McDade 2002 Syst Bot 27:84–98] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Daniel 1984 Desert Plant 5:162–179; Daniel 1998 Proc Calif Acad Sci 50:217–256]

Key to Acanthaceae

1. Shrub; roots exposed at low tide; hook-like outgrowth subtending seed 0; flowers white; coastal salt marshes, South Coast ..... AVICENNIA

1' Subshrub, shrub; roots not exposed; hook-like outgrowth subtending seed present; flowers white with yellow or ± red; dry sandy or rocky soils, especially washes, rocky slopes, w Peninsular Ranges, Sonoran Desert

2. Corolla 1–1.8 cm, white with yellow, maroon-streaked spot on upper lip, tube < lips; anther sacs ± equally placed on filament, not spurred; fruit glabrous ..... CARLOWRIGHTIA

2' Corolla 2–4 cm, dull scarlet (yellow), tube generally >= lips; anther sacs unequally placed on filament, lower sac spurred; fruit canescent ..... JUSTICIA

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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