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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Perennial herb from fleshy taproot; caudices 1–many. Stem: erect. Leaf: basal and few cauline, alternate or opposite, long-petioled; blade entire to 1–3-pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: heads 1–few, radiate; peduncles long, bracts 0–few; involucre hemispheric to bell-shaped; phyllaries in 2–4 series; receptacle flat, paleate; paleae folded around fruits. Ray flower: showy; ray yellow. Disk flower: many; corolla yellow, tube short, throat cylindric to narrowly bell-shaped; style branches tapered. Fruit: oblong, 3–4-angled; pappus 0.
12 species: western North America. (Greek: balsam root, from sticky sap of taproot) [Weber 2006 FNANM 21:93–99] Hybrids common.
Unabridged references: [Weber 1982 Phytologia 50:357–359]

Key to Balsamorhiza

1. Leaf blade widely triangular, base cordate and ± hastate, margin entire to coarsely dentate

2. Leaf generally scabrous to thinly stiff-hairy; phyllaries glandular and loosely long-soft-hairy ..... B. deltoidea

2' Leaf densely canescent-tomentose, at least when young; phyllary bases permanently tomentose ..... B. sagittata

1' Leaf blade lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, base generally not cordate or hastate, margin coarsely toothed to deeply divided

3. Leaf blade coarsely serrate but generally not deeply lobed ..... B. serrata

3' Leaf blade generally deeply pinnately lobed to divided

4. Stem densely glandular-puberulent (and generally also sparsely long-hairy) ..... B. hirsuta

4' Stem strigose to densely hairy (sometimes also gland-dotted), sometimes becoming ± glabrous

5. Outer phyllaries lanceolate, 2–4 mm wide, acuminate; herbage densely ± white-tomentose ..... B. lanata

5' Outer phyllaries lance-ovate to widely ovate, 4–10 mm wide, obtuse to acute; herbage finely strigose to silky or bristly, green to densely silvery-canescent

6. Outer phyllaries 20–40 mm, >> disk; leaves thinly strigose, green or lightly silvery-canescent ..... B. macrolepis

6' Outer phyllaries 12–24 mm, generally = or slightly > disk; leaves generally densely strigose, lightly canescent to silvery

7. Leaf ± gray-green (generally not silvery), lobes generally again divided; e Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... B. hookeri

7' Leaf silvery, lobes generally entire; e Klamath Ranges ..... B. sericea


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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