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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial from fleshy taproot; caudices 1–many.
Leaf: basal and few cauline, alternate or opposite, long-petioled; blade entire to 1–3-pinnately lobed.
Inflorescence: heads 1–few, radiate; peduncles long, bracts 0–few; involucre hemispheric to bell-shaped; phyllaries in 2–4 series; receptacle flat, paleate; paleae folded around fruits.
Ray flower: showy; ray yellow.
Disk flower: many; corolla yellow, tube short, throat cylindric to narrowly bell-shaped; style branches tapered.
Fruit: oblong, 3–4-angled; pappus 0.
12 species: w North America. (Greek: balsam root, from sticky sap of taproot) [Weber 2006 FNANM 21:93–99] Hybrids common.
Unabridged references: [Weber 1982 Phytologia 50:357–359]
1. Lf blade widely triangular, base cordate and ± hastate, margin entire to coarsely dentate
2. Lf generally scabrous to thinly stiff-hairy; phyllaries glandular and loosely long-soft-hairy ..... B. deltoidea
2' Lf densely canescent-tomentose, at least when young; phyllary bases permanently tomentose ..... B. sagittata
1' Lf blade lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, base generally not cordate or hastate, margin coarsely toothed to deeply divided
3. Lf blade coarsely serrate but generally not deeply lobed ..... B. serrata
3' Lf blade generally deeply pinnately lobed to divided
4. St densely glandular-puberulent (and generally also sparsely long-hairy) ..... B. hirsuta
4' St strigose to densely hairy (sometimes also gland-dotted), sometimes becoming ± glabrous
5. Outer phyllaries lanceolate, 2–4 mm wide, acuminate; herbage densely ± white-tomentose ..... B. lanata
5' Outer phyllaries lance-ovate to widely ovate, 4–10 mm wide, obtuse to acute; herbage finely strigose to silky or bristly, green to densely silvery-canescent
6. Outer phyllaries 20–40 mm, >> disk; leaves thinly strigose, green or lightly silvery-canescent ..... B. macrolepis
6' Outer phyllaries 12–24 mm, generally = or slightly > disk; leaves generally densely strigose, lightly canescent to silvery
7. Lf ± gray-green (generally not silvery), lobes generally again divided; e CaR, n SNH, MP ..... B. hookeri
7' Lf silvery, lobes generally entire; e KR ..... B. sericea
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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