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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



David Bogler

Perennial herb from woody base, shrub, dioecious, glabrous or finely hairy, often glandular and sticky or shiny. Stem: generally erect or ascending, round or often striate-angled, generally green. Leaf: cauline, alternate, sessile to short-petioled, linear to (ob)ovate, entire or toothed, distally occasionally reduced to bracts. Inflorescence: heads of 2 kinds, unisexual; discoid (staminate) and disciform (pistillate), 1 or in terminal or lateral raceme- or panicle-like or ± flat-topped clusters; phyllaries lanceolate to ovate, graduated in several series; receptacle flat to conic, epaleate, smooth or pitted. Pistillate flower: 8–150; corolla narrowly tubular, ± white, lobes vestigial; style branches linear, ± glabrous. Staminate flower: 8–48; corolla white to pale yellow, 5-lobed; anther tip oblong-triangular; style tips erect, club-shaped or oblong to linear, densely papillate to minutely bristly, ovary much reduced; pappus of many equal bristles. Fruit: ± cylindric, 5–10-ribbed; pappus of many bristles, generally elongating and exceeding phyllaries in fruit, ± white to tawny.
350–450 species: America. (Latin: Bacchus, god of wine) [Sundberg & Bogler 2006 FNANM 20:23–34]
Unabridged references: [Müller 2006 Syst Bot Mono 76]

Key to Baccharis

1. Stem generally short-hairy, at least distally among heads

2. Leaves regularly minutely dentate with closely spaced sharp teeth, oblong or oblanceolate, (3)5–13 mm wide ..... B. plummerae subsp. plummerae

2' Leaves entire or weakly toothed, linear to linear-(ob)lanceolate, 1–4(8) mm wide

3. Proximal leaves present at flower, blades (15)20–45(68) mm, 1–4(8) mm wide, linear to linear-oblanceolate, resin-gland-dotted adaxially; distal leaves generally well developed ..... B. malibuensis

3' Proximal leaves deciduous and 0 at flower, blades 5–17 mm, 1–2 mm wide, lance-linear, not resin-gland-dotted or sticky; distal leaves reduced, bract-like ..... B. brachyphylla

1' Stem generally glabrous throughout

4. Plant broom-like, stems dense, with numerous parallel branches; leaves sparse or 0 at flower; heads single at branch tips or ± sessile on lateral branches, these in raceme- or panicle-like clusters

5. Leaves 5–15 mm wide, widely oblanceolate to obovate; heads ± sessile on lateral branches in crowded panicle-like clusters; staminate corolla 2–3.5 mm ..... B. sergiloides

5' Leaves 1–3 mm wide, thread-like to narrowly oblanceolate; heads single, stalked, or in small groups in raceme- or panicle-like clusters; staminate corolla > 3.5 mm

6. Stem striate, sharply angled; involucre of pistillate head ± cylindric; phyllaries ovate to lanceolate, tips acute to rounded, glabrous; gravelly or sandy disturbed areas ..... B. sarothroides

6' Stem smooth, rounded; involucre of pistillate head ± funnel-shaped; phyllaries lanceolate, narrowly tapered, usually glandular-scurfy; dense chaparral ..... B. vanessae

4' Plant bushy or sparingly branched, not broom-like; leaves present at flower; heads in flat-topped or panicle-like clusters (or smaller, lateral clusters in spring-flowering plants).

7. Leaf blades obovate or oblanceolate ..... B. pilularis

8. Stems generally erect, brittle, forming erect or rounded shrub; leaves generally 15–40 mm ..... subsp. consanguinea

8' Stems prostrate, flexible, forming mat; leaves generally 5–15 mm; exposed sandy beaches and sea bluffs ..... subsp. pilularis

7' Leaf blades linear, lanceolate, elliptic, oblong to narrowly oblanceolate

9. Leaf blades 1–2(5) mm wide, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, margin entire to minutely dentate with closely spaced sharp teeth; faces not sticky ..... B. plummerae subsp. glabrata

9' Leaf blades 3–30 mm wide, lanceolate, lance-elliptic or oblong to narrowly oblanceolate, faces generally sticky

10. Leaf blades linear-oblong to narrowly oblanceolate, entire or distally coarsely and irregularly toothed; fruit 8–10-ribbed, pappus 8–12 mm ..... B. salicina

10' Leaf blades lanceolate or lance-elliptic, entire or finely serrate distally or throughout; fruit 5-ribbed, pappus 2.5–6(7) mm

11. Rhizomatous perennial herb, forming large colonies; heads in dense, compact, terminal rounded to ± flat-topped clusters; fruit minutely hairy ..... B. glutinosa

11' Shrub, not rhizomatous, not forming colonies; heads in terminal flat-topped or pyramidal panicle-like clusters in summer–fall-flowering pls, in smaller lateral clusters in spring-flowering plants; fruit glabrous ..... B. salicifolia subsp. salicifolia


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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