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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to shrub, generally aromatic.
Leaf: entire to ± lobed, glabrous to densely hairy; hairs glandular (resin-filled) or T-shaped, hollow.
Inflorescence: heads discoid or disciform, in spike-, raceme-, or generally panicle-like clusters; involucre ovoid to hemispheric, generally concealing flowers; phyllaries in 1–several series, persistent, margins scarious; receptacle hemispheric to conic, generally epaleate, generally glabrous.
Pistillate flower: 0–many; corolla generally <= 2 mm, tubular, rarely short ray-like extension present.
Disk flower: 3–many, generally bisexual, sometimes staminate ( ovary vestigial, style branches remaining erect or style unbranched, tip expanded, tack-shaped); corolla <= 2.5 mm, ± pale yellow, tube < throat, lobes short-triangular; anther tip acute-ovate to awl-shaped; style tips flat, truncate, hair- fringed.
Fruit: < 2 mm, obovoid or fusiform, sometimes ribbed, glabrous, hairy, or resin- gland-dotted; pappus generally 0 or minute crown.
± 400 species: especially n hemisphere. (Greek: Artemis, goddess of the hunt, noted herbalist, Queen of Anatolia) [Shultz 2006 FNANM 19:503–534; Shultz 2009 Syst Bot Monogr 89:1–131] Reports of Artemisia campestris L. subsp. pacifica (Nutt.) H.M. Hall & Clem. for CA unconfirmed. Artemisia arbuscula var. thermopola Beetle not in CA. Artemisia absinthium L. often cultivated, may persist, perhaps naturalizing in ne CA. Recent studies place Sphaeromeria in the Artemisia clade (Garcia et al. 2011 Am J Bot).
1. Annual to perennial herb, base sometimes woody; axillary leaf clusters generally 0
2. Rhizome present
3. Lvs generally 1–8 cm wide, ± glabrous to sparsely tomentose adaxially, glabrous or hairy abaxially; stems 3–25 dm
4. Proximal-most leaves 2-pinnately divided, lateral lobes acute; leaves generally glabrous adaxially, tomentose (or becoming glabrous) abaxially
5. Plant sage-scented (not lemony); phyllaries gray-green, densely tomentose ..... A. ludoviciana subsp. incompta
5' Plant strongly lemon-scented; phyllaries often ± purple and dotted with yellow glands, generally ± glabrous ..... A. michauxiana
4' Lvs entire to pinnately lobed, lateral lobes obtuse to acute, glabrous to ± sparsely tomentose adaxially, densely tomentose abaxially
6. Involucre bell-shaped, 2–4 mm diam; phyllaries gray-hairy, ± widely (ob)ovate; flowers > 15; leaves green to gray-green adaxially; widespread ..... A. douglasiana
6' Involucre narrow, <= 2 mm diam; phyllaries ± yellow, glabrous to sparsely hairy, oblong to ± ovate; flowers < 15; leaves dark green adaxially; NCo, s ChI ..... A. suksdorfii
3' Lvs 0.5–1(4) cm wide, densely gray-hairy (or becoming ± glabrous adaxially); stems 2–8(12) dm ..... A. ludoviciana
7. Infl generally open, occasionally dense and narrow; leaves generally 1–2 cm ..... subsp. albula
7' Infl dense, narrow; leaves generally 2–11 cm
8. Lvs entire to toothed or shallowly lobed ..... subsp. ludoviciana
8' Lvs deeply 1–2-divided into narrow lobes
9. Involucre 4–5 mm, 4–7 mm diam; leaves gray-white-tomentose ..... subsp. candicans
9' Involucre 2.5–4 mm, 3–5 mm diam; adaxial leaf face often green ..... subsp. incompta
2' Rhizome 0
10. St hairy, branched from base, from basal leaf cluster
11. Lvs densely hairy; phyllaries densely gray-hairy, margins widely scarious; coastal ..... A. pycnocephala
11' Lvs glabrous to densely silky-hairy; phyllaries sparsely hairy, margins dark or scarious; montane
12. Phyllary margins scarious; involucre 3.5–4 mm diam; biennial or perennial herb from taproot; heads generally erect in spike- or narrowly panicle-like clusters ..... A. borealis subsp. borealis
12' Phyllary margins ± black; involucre (4)7–11 mm diam; perennial herb from branched caudex; heads nodding, slender-peduncled in raceme-like or few-branched, panicle-like cluster ..... A. norvegica subsp. saxatilis
10' St generally glabrous, simple, basal leaves 0
13. Biennial or per; leaves entire to 1-pinnately lobed
14. Lvs linear, entire or with few linear lobes; heads disciform, disk flowers staminate; receptacle epaleate; widespread ..... A. dracunculus
14' Lvs deeply and coarsely pinnately 3–7-lobed; heads discoid; receptacle paleate; SCo, PR ..... A. palmeri
13' Annual or biennial; stem erect; leaves 2–3-pinnately divided
15. Heads nodding; annual, aromatic; leaves 2–3-pinnately divided ..... [A. annua]
15' Heads erect; annual or biennial, unscented; leaves 2-pinnately divided ..... A. biennis
1' Subshrub or shrub; axillary leaf clusters present
16. Plant spiny, compact; inflorescence short, heads ± hidden by leaves; leaves palmately 2–5-divided; flower spring/early summer ..... A. spinescens
16' Plant unarmed, compact to tall; inflorescence long, heads not hidden by leaves; leaf lobes 0–5; flowering late summer/fall
17. Lvs (1)2–10 cm, linear, often ± thread-like or lobes <= 3 mm wide, generally > 1 cm
18. Lf segments generally < 1 mm wide, margins curled under; CW, SW ..... A. californica
18' Lf segments 1–3 mm wide, flat; s ChI ..... A. nesiotica
17' Lvs 0.3–2(6) cm, generally oblong or wedge-shaped (to linear), generally > 3 mm wide, entire to shallowly 3-lobed at tip, lobes < 1 cm
19. Heads nodding; leaves not clustered, entire or teeth or lobes 3, sharply pointed — W&I, DMoj ..... A. bigelovii
19' Heads erect; leaves often in axillary clusters, entire or teeth 3(6), rounded to acute
20. Lvs generally linear, entire, winter-deciduous; heads generally > 5 mm wide ..... A. cana subsp. bolanderi
20' Lvs generally wedge-shaped, generally 3-toothed or -lobed (entire or 6-toothed in Artemisia spiciformis), persistent in winter; heads generally < 5 mm wide (4.5–6 mm in Artemisia spiciformis)
21. Plant generally < 4 dm; inflorescence narrow, generally < 3 cm wide
22. Heads short-peduncled; involucre generally 1–2 mm diam
23. Phyllaries shiny-resinous, straw-colored; leaves of flower-stems generally entire ..... A. nova
23' Phyllaries densely gray-tomentose; leaves of flower-stems (at least proximal) lobed ..... A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis
22' Heads ± sessile; involucre 2–4.5 mm diam, gray-hairy ..... A. arbuscula
24. Fls 3–6 per head
25. Lvs of flower-stem shallowly lobed or distal entire; involucre 3–4.5 mm diam ..... subsp. arbuscula
25' Lvs of flower-stem deeply lobed; involucre 2–3 mm diam ..... subsp. longiloba
24' Fls 8–23 per head
26. Plant sticky-resinous; leaves evergreen ..... A. rothrockii (2)
26' Plant not sticky; leaves ± winter-deciduous ..... A. spiciformis (2)
21' Plant generally > 4 dm; inflorescence generally > 3 cm wide
27. Heads >= 3 mm diam; plant sticky-resinous; meadows, c&s SNH, SnGb, SnBr, n SNE, W&I ..... A. rothrockii (2)
27' Heads generally < 3 mm diam (generally 4.5–6 mm in Artemisia spiciformis); plant not sticky; mtns, dry valleys, widespread
28. Lvs entire to irregularly 3–6-toothed, partly deciduous; plant sprouting from roots; moist slopes, rocky meadows, SNH, W&I > 2000 m ..... A. spiciformis (2)
28' Lvs generally regularly 3-lobed or toothed at tip, wedge-shaped, evergreen; plant not root-sprouting; widespread ..... A. tridentata (in part)
29. Plants with a flat-topped crown; inflorescence rising above truncate vegetative portion, narrow, branches generally erect ..... subsp. vaseyana
29' Plants with a rounded crown; inflorescence amongst as well as surpassing distal-most vegetative branches, widely branching, branches erect to spreading or drooping
30. Infl branches generally drooping; fruit hairy ..... subsp. parishii
30' Infl branches erect to generally spreading; fruit glandular ..... subsp. tridentata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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