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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ARTEMISIA MUGWORT, SAGEBRUSH, SAGEWORT

Leila M. Shultz


Annual to shrub, generally aromatic. Leaf: entire to ± lobed, glabrous to densely hairy; hairs glandular (resin-filled) or T-shaped, hollow. Inflorescence: heads discoid or disciform, in spike-, raceme-, or generally panicle-like clusters; involucre ovoid to hemispheric, generally concealing flowers; phyllaries in 1–several series, persistent, margins scarious; receptacle hemispheric to conic, generally epaleate, generally glabrous. Pistillate flower: 0–many; corolla generally <= 2 mm, tubular, rarely short ray-like extension present. Disk flower: 3–many, generally bisexual, sometimes staminate (ovary vestigial, style branches remaining erect or style unbranched, tip expanded, tack-shaped); corolla <= 2.5 mm, ± pale yellow, tube < throat, lobes short-triangular; anther tip acute-ovate to awl-shaped; style tips flat, truncate, hair-fringed. Fruit: < 2 mm, obovoid or fusiform, sometimes ribbed, glabrous, hairy, or resin-gland-dotted; pappus generally 0 or minute crown.
± 400 species: especially northern hemisphere. (Greek: Artemis, goddess of the hunt, noted herbalist, Queen of Anatolia) [Shultz 2006 FNANM 19:503–534; Shultz 2009 Syst Bot Monogr 89:1–131] Reports of Artemisia campestris L. subsp. pacifica (Nutt.) H.M. Hall & Clem. for California unconfirmed. Artemisia arbuscula var. thermopola Beetle not in California. Artemisia absinthium L. often cultivated, may persist, perhaps naturalizing in northeastern California. Recent studies place Sphaeromeria in the Artemisia clade (Garcia et al. 2011 Am J Bot).

Key to Artemisia

1. Annual to perennial herb, base sometimes woody; axillary leaf clusters generally 0

2. Rhizome present

3. Leaves generally 1–8 cm wide, ± glabrous to sparsely tomentose adaxially, glabrous or hairy abaxially; stems 3–25 dm

4. Proximal-most leaves 2-pinnately divided, lateral lobes acute; leaves generally glabrous adaxially, tomentose (or becoming glabrous) abaxially

5. Plant sage-scented (not lemony); phyllaries gray-green, densely tomentose ..... A. ludoviciana subsp. incompta

5' Plant strongly lemon-scented; phyllaries often ± purple and dotted with yellow glands, generally ± glabrous ..... A. michauxiana

4' Leaves entire to pinnately lobed, lateral lobes obtuse to acute, glabrous to ± sparsely tomentose adaxially, densely tomentose abaxially

6. Involucre bell-shaped, 2–4 mm diam; phyllaries gray-hairy, ± widely (ob)ovate; flowers > 15; leaves green to gray-green adaxially; widespread ..... A. douglasiana

6' Involucre narrow, <= 2 mm diam; phyllaries ± yellow, glabrous to sparsely hairy, oblong to ± ovate; flowers < 15; leaves dark green adaxially; North Coast, s Channel Islands ..... A. suksdorfii

3' Leaves 0.5–1(4) cm wide, densely gray-hairy (or becoming ± glabrous adaxially); stems 2–8(12) dm ..... A. ludoviciana

7. Inflorescence generally open, occasionally dense and narrow; leaves generally 1–2 cm ..... subsp. albula

7' Inflorescence dense, narrow; leaves generally 2–11 cm

8. Leaves entire to toothed or shallowly lobed ..... subsp. ludoviciana

8' Leaves deeply 1–2-divided into narrow lobes

9. Involucre 4–5 mm, 4–7 mm diam; leaves gray-white-tomentose ..... subsp. candicans

9' Involucre 2.5–4 mm, 3–5 mm diam; adaxial leaf face often green ..... subsp. incompta

2' Rhizome 0

10. Stem hairy, branched from base, from basal leaf cluster

11. Leaves densely hairy; phyllaries densely gray-hairy, margins widely scarious; coastal ..... A. pycnocephala

11' Leaves glabrous to densely silky-hairy; phyllaries sparsely hairy, margins dark or scarious; montane

12. Phyllary margins scarious; involucre 3.5–4 mm diam; biennial or perennial herb from taproot; heads generally erect in spike- or narrowly panicle-like clusters ..... A. borealis subsp. borealis

12' Phyllary margins ± black; involucre (4)7–11 mm diam; perennial herb from branched caudex; heads nodding, slender-peduncled in raceme-like or few-branched, panicle-like cluster ..... A. norvegica subsp. saxatilis

10' Stem generally glabrous, simple, basal leaves 0

13. Biennial or perennial herb; leaves entire to 1-pinnately lobed

14. Leaves linear, entire or with few linear lobes; heads disciform, disk flowers staminate; receptacle epaleate; widespread ..... A. dracunculus

14' Leaves deeply and coarsely pinnately 3–7-lobed; heads discoid; receptacle paleate; South Coast, Peninsular Ranges ..... A. palmeri

13' Annual or biennial; stem erect; leaves 2–3-pinnately divided

15. Heads nodding; annual, aromatic; leaves 2–3-pinnately divided ..... [A. annua]

15' Heads erect; annual or biennial, unscented; leaves 2-pinnately divided ..... A. biennis

1' Subshrub or shrub; axillary leaf clusters present

16. Plant spiny, compact; inflorescence short, heads ± hidden by leaves; leaves palmately 2–5-divided; flower spring/early summer ..... A. spinescens

16' Plant unarmed, compact to tall; inflorescence long, heads not hidden by leaves; leaf lobes 0–5; flowering late summer/fall

17. Leaves (1)2–10 cm, linear, often ± thread-like or lobes <= 3 mm wide, generally > 1 cm

18. Leaf segments generally < 1 mm wide, margins curled under; Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... A. californica

18' Leaf segments 1–3 mm wide, flat; s Channel Islands ..... A. nesiotica

17' Leaves 0.3–2(6) cm, generally oblong or wedge-shaped (to linear), generally > 3 mm wide, entire to shallowly 3-lobed at tip, lobes < 1 cm

19. Heads nodding; leaves not clustered, entire or teeth or lobes 3, sharply pointed — White and Inyo Mountains, Mojave Desert ..... A. bigelovii

19' Heads erect; leaves often in axillary clusters, entire or teeth 3(6), rounded to acute

20. Leaves generally linear, entire, winter-deciduous; heads generally > 5 mm wide ..... A. cana subsp. bolanderi

20' Leaves generally wedge-shaped, generally 3-toothed or -lobed (entire or 6-toothed in Artemisia spiciformis), persistent in winter; heads generally < 5 mm wide (4.5–6 mm in Artemisia spiciformis)

21. Plant generally < 4 dm; inflorescence narrow, generally < 3 cm wide

22. Heads short-peduncled; involucre generally 1–2 mm diam

23. Phyllaries shiny-resinous, straw-colored; leaves of flower-stems generally entire ..... A. nova

23' Phyllaries densely gray-tomentose; leaves of flower-stems (at least proximal) lobed ..... A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis

22' Heads ± sessile; involucre 2–4.5 mm diam, gray-hairy ..... A. arbuscula

24. Flowers 3–6 per head

25. Leaves of flower-stem shallowly lobed or distal entire; involucre 3–4.5 mm diam ..... subsp. arbuscula

25' Leaves of flower-stem deeply lobed; involucre 2–3 mm diam ..... subsp. longiloba

24' Flowers 8–23 per head

26. Plant sticky-resinous; leaves evergreen ..... A. rothrockii (2)

26' Plant not sticky; leaves ± winter-deciduous ..... A. spiciformis (2)

21' Plant generally > 4 dm; inflorescence generally > 3 cm wide

27. Heads >= 3 mm diam; plant sticky-resinous; meadows, c&s High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, n East of Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains ..... A. rothrockii (2)

27' Heads generally < 3 mm diam (generally 4.5–6 mm in Artemisia spiciformis); plant not sticky; mtns, dry valleys, widespread

28. Leaves entire to irregularly 3–6-toothed, partly deciduous; plant sprouting from roots; moist slopes, rocky meadows, High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains > 2000 m ..... A. spiciformis (2)

28' Leaves generally regularly 3-lobed or toothed at tip, wedge-shaped, evergreen; plant not root-sprouting; widespread ..... A. tridentata (in part)

29. Plants with a flat-topped crown; inflorescence rising above truncate vegetative portion, narrow, branches generally erect ..... subsp. vaseyana

29' Plants with a rounded crown; inflorescence amongst as well as surpassing distal-most vegetative branches, widely branching, branches erect to spreading or drooping

30. Inflorescence branches generally drooping; fruit hairy ..... subsp. parishii

30' Inflorescence branches erect to generally spreading; fruit glandular ..... subsp. tridentata

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