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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]
1. Leaves in bundles of (1)2–5 (generally 1 in Pinus monophylla, but then ± round in section, vs leaves ± flat under 1'), generally 2.5–35 cm, base in scaly sheath; seed cone bract fused to scale at least basally, included, inconspicuous ..... PINUS
1' Leaves not in bundles, 0.5–9 cm, base not in scaly sheath; seed cone bract generally ± free from scale (± fused in Abies), exserted or included, conspicuous
2. Twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone erect, scales, bracts deciduous, axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling ..... ABIES
2' Twig with or without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone pendent, scales, bracts, axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling as unit
3. Twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone 4–20 cm, bracts exserted, 3-toothed or -lobed ..... PSEUDOTSUGA
3' Twig with persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone 1.2–12 cm, bracts included, entire or fringed
4. Leaf tip blunt to acute, persistent base spreading, peg-like; seed cone 5–12 cm ..... PICEA
4' Leaf tip generally blunt, persistent base ascending, wedge or scale-like; seed cone 1.2–7.5 cm ..... TSUGA
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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