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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious.
Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent.
Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several yrs.
Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous.
Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract.
Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally n hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]
1. Lvs in bundles of (1)2–5 (generally 1 in Pinus monophylla, but then ± round in section, vs leaves ± flat under 1'), generally 2.5–35 cm, base in scaly sheath; seed cone bract fused to scale at least basally, included, inconspicuous ..... PINUS
1' Lvs not in bundles, 0.5–9 cm, base not in scaly sheath; seed cone bract generally ± free from scale (± fused in Abies), exserted or included, conspicuous
2. Twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone erect, scales, bracts deciduous, axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling ..... ABIES
2' Twig with or without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone pendent, scales, bracts, axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling as unit
3. Twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone 4–20 cm, bracts exserted, 3-toothed or -lobed ..... PSEUDOTSUGA
3' Twig with persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone 1.2–12 cm, bracts included, entire or fringed
4. Lf tip blunt to acute, persistent base spreading, peg-like; seed cone 5–12 cm ..... PICEA
4' Lf tip generally blunt, persistent base ascending, wedge or scale-like; seed cone 1.2–7.5 cm ..... TSUGA
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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