|University of California, Berkeley|
Key to families | Table of families and genera
1. Leaves in bundles of (1)2–5 (generally 1 in Pinus monophylla, but then ± round in section, vs leaves ± flat under 1'), generally 2.5–35 cm, base in scaly sheath; seed cone bract fused to scale at least basally, included, inconspicuous ..... PINUS
1' Leaves not in bundles, 0.5–9 cm, base not in scaly sheath; seed cone bract generally ± free from scale (± fused in Abies), exserted or included, conspicuous
2. Twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone erect, scales, bracts deciduous, axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling ..... ABIES
2' Twig with or without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone pendent, scales, bracts, axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling as unit
3. Twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone 4–20 cm, bracts exserted, 3-toothed or -lobed ..... PSEUDOTSUGA
3' Twig with persistent, peg-like leaf bases; seed cone 1.2–12 cm, bracts included, entire or fringed
4. Leaf tip blunt to acute, persistent base spreading, peg-like; seed cone 5–12 cm ..... PICEA
4' Leaf tip generally blunt, persistent base ascending, wedge or scale-like; seed cone 1.2–7.5 cm ..... TSUGA
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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