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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual or perennial herb from taproot, occasionally with branched caudex, generally scapose; sap milky.
Leaf: generally all basal, generally lanceolate to oblanceolate, long- tapered to obtuse, entire, toothed, or 1–2-pinnately lobed, 1° lobes generally ± opposite, generally on proximal 2/3; 2° lobes 0–1; faces glabrous to densely hairy, hairs generally white-opaque and glandless.
Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1, erect, long-peduncled; involucre cylindric to ovoid or bell-shaped in flower, ovoid in fruit, glabrous to densely hairy, hairs white-opaque and glandless or colorless- or yellow-translucent (occasionally with purple cross-walls) and glandular, glands generally yellow, occasionally purple; phyllaries in 2–5(+) series, ± equal in flower, often strongly graduated in fruit, generally entire, green to rosy-purple, often with darker spots or midstripe, outer erect or tips spreading to recurved, inner erect, elongating with fruit or not, ± reflexed when dry; receptacle flat, epaleate ( paleate), generally pitted.
Flower: 5–500; ligules ± equaling to much exceeding involucre, yellow, or orange, pink, red, or purple, readily withering.
Fruit: cylindric to fusiform or obconic (inflated), ± 10-ribbed, generally ± white to brown or purple-black (gray), glabrous to minutely coarse-hairy or puberulent; beak << to >> body (0); pappus of many fine, simple, white bristles.
11 species: Am. (Greek: chief or goat + chicory, meaning is obscure) [Baird 2006 FNANM 19:323–335] Closely related to Nothocalais. Self-pollination complicates variation in some species; polyploidy and hybridization blur distinctions between some taxa.
Unabridged references: [Baird 1996 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ of Texas, Austin]
1. Annual from slender taproot; stem often leafy above base; involucre 10–25 mm in fruit; outer fruits sometimes wavy-ribbed (or inflated and ribless) ..... A. heterophylla
2. Ligule 10–15 mm, much exceeding involucre; anthers 2–4 mm; leaf lobes generally 3–5 pairs ..... var. cryptopleura
2' Ligule 2–6 mm, ± equaling involucre; anthers 1–1.5 mm; leaf lobes generally 2–3 pairs ..... var. heterophylla
1' Perennial from stout taproot, generally with caudex; stem generally not or obscurely leafy above base; involucre 10–60 mm in fruit; outer fruits generally straight-ribbed
3. Corolla orange, pink, or ± red, generally drying ± purple
4. Involucre not glandular-hairy; petiole generally ± purple ..... A. aurantiaca var. aurantiaca (2)
4' Involucre ± glandular-hairy; petiole generally not purple ..... A. ×elata (2)
3' Corolla yellow, outer generally ± purple abaxially, drying ± white but purple still evident
5. Fr beak stout, << body; inner phyllaries generally not elongating in fruit
6. Peduncle generally 5–20 cm, ± glandular-hairy, base generally ± glandular-woolly; leaf blade generally 2–10 cm, generally toothed or lobed (entire), lobes generally 2(+) pairs, ± divergent, proximal lobes angled towards leaf base, distal angled towards leaf tip or spreading; plant generally decumbent or prostrate ..... A. monticola
6' Peduncle generally 20–60 cm, ± glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy, hairs glandular or not; leaf blade generally 3–30 cm, entire, toothed, or lobed, lobes (if present) generally > 2 pairs, spreading or all angled in same direction; plant erect to spreading or petioles decumbent
7. Lvs glabrous and glaucous to densely hairy, entire or few-toothed or -lobed; peduncle generally hairy or ± glabrous in age except distally; phyllaries in 3–4 series, outer generally rosy-purple except margin, generally ± glandular-hairy ..... A. ×dasycarpa
7' Lvs ± glabrous, ± glaucous, generally ± entire or weakly few-toothed; peduncle generally glabrous, occasionally sparsely hairy distally; phyllaries in 2–3 series, outer green or ± rosy-purple, generally purple-spotted, generally ± glabrous proximally (weakly ciliate), hairs glandless ..... A. glauca var. glauca
5' Fr beak ± slender, (< 1)1–4 × body; inner phyllaries ± elongating with fruit
8. Fr beak 10–25 mm, (< 3)3–4 × body; leaves generally pinnately lobed or toothed (entire)
9. Ligule 6–15 mm, tube 10–20 mm; anthers 2–5 mm; pappus generally 15–20 mm, bristles in 4–6 series; leaf lobes generally angled toward leaf base; fruit body tip ± truncate, not tapered to beak ..... A. retrorsa
9' Ligule 3–7 mm, tube 4–7 mm; anthers 1–3 mm; pappus 7–15 mm, bristles in 2–3 series; leaf lobes generally angled toward leaf tip or spreading; fruit body tip ± abruptly tapered to beak ..... A. grandiflora
10. Plant ± robust; leaves (± entire) toothed to pinnately lobed, generally >= 10 mm wide except lobes; leaf lobes ± lanceolate to oblanceolate; flowers generally 150–500; phyllaries green or generally rosy-purple, rarely purple-spotted, outer often exceeding inner at flower ..... var. grandiflora
10' Plant ± slender; leaves pinnately lobed (toothed), generally 2–4 mm wide except lobes; leaf lobes thread-like to lance-linear; flowers generally < 100; phyllaries generally rosy-purple and often purple-spotted, outer ± = or sometimes exceeding inner at flower ..... var. leptophylla
8' Fr beak <= 10 mm, (< 1)1–3 × body; leaves entire to pinnately lobed
11. Fr body 5–10 mm; corolla tube 6–15 mm, rarely shorter; pappus 9–20 mm
12. Lf lobes generally angled toward leaf base or spreading; ligule 10–20 mm, exceeding involucre; fruit beak (< 1)1–2 × body ..... A. parviflora
12' Lf lobes generally angled toward leaf tip or spreading; ligule 5–10(+) mm, generally ± equaling (exceeding) involucre; fruit beak generally = body
13. Involucre not glandular-hairy; petiole generally ± purple ..... A. aurantiaca var. aurantiaca (2)
13' Involucre ± glandular-hairy; petiole generally not purple ..... A. ×elata (2)
11' Fr body 3–5 mm; corolla tube 2–6 mm; pappus 4–10 mm
14. Lvs generally pinnately lobed (toothed); leaf lobes generally 5–7(+) pairs, 2° lobe occasionally 1; plant generally erect, leaves all basal; ± inland in ± fine-textured soils — NCoR, ScV, CW ..... A. hirsuta
14' Lvs entire to pinnately lobed; leaf lobes if present generally 3–5(+) pairs, thread-like to ± spoon-shaped, 2° lobe generally 0; plant generally decumbent to ± erect, leafy stem present and ± buried by drifting sand, or leafy stem 0; coastal dunes and sand hills ..... A. apargioides
15. Ligule 3–6 mm, not or scarcely exceeding phyllaries; anthers 1.5–2.5 mm; head glabrous or hairs generally white-opaque, glandless — n NCo (Humboldt Bay n) ..... var. maritima
15' Ligule 8–16 mm, exceeding phyllaries; anthers 3.5–4.5 mm; head glabrous or hairs generally white- or yellow-translucent, glandular
16. Plant generally glabrous to ± densely hairy, hairs ± white; leaf blade generally 1–15 mm wide except lobes, linear to oblanceolate, lobes if present thread-like to ± lanceolate (spoon-shaped) — CCo (San Francisco s to Cambria) ..... var. apargioides
16' Plant generally densely hairy, hairs ± yellow; leaf blade generally 15–30 mm wide except lobes, blade and lobes oblanceolate to ± spoon-shaped — c&s NCo, n CCo (Point Reyes n to Mendocino) ..... var. eastwoodiae
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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