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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy.
Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout.
Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate.
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose.
Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, , 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 ( carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 ( carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3).
Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles.
Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially n temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] CA Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]
1. Fl inconspicuous; sepals 4; petals 0; stamens 8 ..... CHRYSOSPLENIUM
1' Fl ± conspicuous; sepals 5; petals generally 5 (rarely 0, 2, or 4); stamens generally 5 or 10 (rarely 3)
2. Fl slightly to strongly bilateral
3. Stamens 3; petals 4; hypanthium open on lower side ..... TOLMIEA
3' Stamens 5, petals 0, 2, or 5; hypanthium open or closed on lower side
4. Petals 2 (alternate upper sepals), recurved; hypanthium open on lower side, ± free from ovary ..... BENSONIELLA
4' Petals 0 or 5, not recurved; hypanthium closed on lower side, partly fused to ovary
5. Infl bulblets 0; petals 0 or not spotted ..... HEUCHERA (2)
5' Proximal flowers replaced by bulblets; some petals ± 2-spotted ..... MICRANTHES (3)
2' Fl ± radial
6. Stamens 5
7. Ovary superior — petals triangular, long-tapered; caudex with bulblets ..... BOLANDRA
7' Ovary generally > 1/2-inferior, at least in flower
8. Lvs basal and cauline; ovary chambers 2, placentas 2, axile
9. Lf blade lobed < 3/4 to base, largest generally >> 4 cm wide; flowers > 15; inflorescence ± flat-topped or ± tapered to tip, branches generally > 3, with flowers generally on 1 side ..... BOYKINIA
9' Lf blade lobed nearly to base, largest 1–4 cm wide; flowers < 15; inflorescence ± flat-topped, branches generally < 3, with flowers on all sides ..... HEMIEVA
8' Lvs generally basal (at most 3 cauline and reduced); ovary chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal
10. Infl a panicle; petals ± entire ..... HEUCHERA (2)
10' Infl a raceme (spike); petals lobed
11. Petals generally 3-lobed at tip, lobes narrowly triangular to elliptic; hypanthium widely obconic to bell-shaped ..... OZOMELIS
11' Petals pinnately lobed, lobes 4–10, linear; hypanthium saucer-shaped
12. Cauline leaves 1–3; inflorescence blooming from tip to base; filaments >> anthers, ± 2/3 sepal ..... MITELLASTRA
12' Cauline leaves 0 (occasionally 1); inflorescence blooming from base to tip; filaments (short) < anthers ..... PECTIANTIA
6' Stamens 10
13. Infl appearing before leaves
14. Lvs peltate, generally > 1 dm wide; inflorescence 7–20 dm; flower not heterostylous ..... DARMERA
14' Lvs not peltate, << 1 dm wide; inflorescence < 3 dm; flower heterostylous ..... JEPSONIA
13' Infl not appearing before leaves
15. Pistils 2; fruit follicle ..... MICRANTHES (3)
15' Pistil 1; fruit capsule
16. Ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal
17. Styles 3 ..... LITHOPHRAGMA
17' Styles 2
18. Infl a spike-like raceme; fruit valves equal, narrow; petal lobes ± 5–7, linear ..... TELLIMA
18' Infl a raceme-like panicle; fruit valves unequal, wide; petal lobes 0 ..... TIARELLA
16' Ovary chambers 2, placentas ± axile (rarely distally marginal in ovary lobes)
19. Lf blade jointed to petiole and falling before it; styles generally fused at base, at least in flower ..... SAXIFRAGOPSIS
19' Lf blade not jointed to petiole nor falling before it; styles free throughout
20. Cauline leaves 0 (if present, then all leaves entire); leaves not lobed ..... MICRANTHES (3)
20' Cauline leaves present, sometimes strongly reduced; some leaves lobed
21. Sts trailing; basal leaves 0; cauline leaves evenly spaced along stem; seeds spiny ..... CASCADIA
21' Sts erect or trailing; basal leaves present or if 0, then cauline leaves mostly near base; seeds finely papillate ..... SAXIFRAGA
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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