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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander, except as noted


Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy. Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, [4], 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]

Key to Saxifragaceae

1. Flower inconspicuous; sepals 4; petals 0; stamens 8 ..... CHRYSOSPLENIUM

1' Flower ± conspicuous; sepals 5; petals generally 5 (rarely 0, 2, or 4); stamens generally 5 or 10 (rarely 3)

2. Flower slightly to strongly bilateral

3. Stamens 3; petals 4; hypanthium open on lower side ..... TOLMIEA

3' Stamens 5, petals 0, 2, or 5; hypanthium open or closed on lower side

4. Petals 2 (alternate upper sepals), recurved; hypanthium open on lower side, ± free from ovary ..... BENSONIELLA

4' Petals 0 or 5, not recurved; hypanthium closed on lower side, partly fused to ovary

5. Inflorescence bulblets 0; petals 0 or not spotted ..... HEUCHERA (2)

5' Proximal flowers replaced by bulblets; some petals ± 2-spotted ..... MICRANTHES (3)

2' Flower ± radial

6. Stamens 5

7. Ovary superior — petals triangular, long-tapered; caudex with bulblets ..... BOLANDRA

7' Ovary generally > 1/2-inferior, at least in flower

8. Leaves basal and cauline; ovary chambers 2, placentas 2, axile

9. Leaf blade lobed < 3/4 to base, largest generally >> 4 cm wide; flowers > 15; inflorescence ± flat-topped or ± tapered to tip, branches generally > 3, with flowers generally on 1 side ..... BOYKINIA

9' Leaf blade lobed nearly to base, largest 1–4 cm wide; flowers < 15; inflorescence ± flat-topped, branches generally < 3, with flowers on all sides ..... HEMIEVA

8' Leaves generally basal (at most 3 cauline and reduced); ovary chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal

10. Inflorescence a panicle; petals ± entire ..... HEUCHERA (2)

10' Inflorescence a raceme (spike); petals lobed

11. Petals generally 3-lobed at tip, lobes narrowly triangular to elliptic; hypanthium widely obconic to bell-shaped ..... OZOMELIS

11' Petals pinnately lobed, lobes 4–10, linear; hypanthium saucer-shaped

12. Cauline leaves 1–3; inflorescence blooming from tip to base; filaments >> anthers, ± 2/3 sepal ..... MITELLASTRA

12' Cauline leaves 0 (occasionally 1); inflorescence blooming from base to tip; filaments (short) < anthers ..... PECTIANTIA

6' Stamens 10

13. Inflorescence appearing before leaves

14. Leaves peltate, generally > 1 dm wide; inflorescence 7–20 dm; flower not heterostylous ..... DARMERA

14' Leaves not peltate, << 1 dm wide; inflorescence < 3 dm; flower heterostylous ..... JEPSONIA

13' Inflorescence not appearing before leaves

15. Pistils 2; fruit follicle ..... MICRANTHES (3)

15' Pistil 1; fruit capsule

16. Ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal

17. Styles 3 ..... LITHOPHRAGMA

17' Styles 2

18. Inflorescence a spike-like raceme; fruit valves equal, narrow; petal lobes ± 5–7, linear ..... TELLIMA

18' Inflorescence a raceme-like panicle; fruit valves unequal, wide; petal lobes 0 ..... TIARELLA

16' Ovary chambers 2, placentas ± axile (rarely distally marginal in ovary lobes)

19. Leaf blade jointed to petiole and falling before it; styles generally fused at base, at least in flower ..... SAXIFRAGOPSIS

19' Leaf blade not jointed to petiole nor falling before it; styles free throughout

20. Cauline leaves 0 (if present, then all leaves entire); leaves not lobed ..... MICRANTHES (3)

20' Cauline leaves present, sometimes strongly reduced; some leaves lobed

21. Stems trailing; basal leaves 0; cauline leaves evenly spaced along stem; seeds spiny ..... CASCADIA

21' Stems erect or trailing; basal leaves present or if 0, then cauline leaves mostly near base; seeds finely papillate ..... SAXIFRAGA

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Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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