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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

RUBIACEAE MADDER FAMILY

Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted


Annual to tree, vine. Leaf: generally opposite (whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and ± axillary. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx ± 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2). Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [capsule].
± 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. [Robbrecht & Manen 2006 Syst & Geogr Plant 76:85–146] Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in California. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1979 Fl California 4(2):1–47]

Key to Rubiaceae

1. Shrub or small tree

2. Inflorescence a dense, spheric head, flowers >> 50; fruit 2–4 dry, brown nutlets; leaves not fleshy ..... CEPHALANTHUS

2' Inflorescence a short, compound cyme, flowers 1–5; fruit drupe, orange-red; leaves fleshy ..... [COPROSMA]

1' Annual to subshrub

3. Leaves all opposite

4. Flowers sessile, axillary, 1–many per node ..... [DIODIA]

4' Flowers long-pedicelled; inflorescence terminal cyme, open, few-flowered ..... KELLOGGIA

3' Leaves generally whorled

5. Inflorescence a dense spike, bracts overlapping; calyx 0 ..... CRUCIANELLA

5' Inflorescence not a spike; calyx present or 0

6. Flowers pedicelled (except Galium murale), in panicles, clusters of 2–many, occasionally 1; involucre 0; calyx 0 ..... GALIUM

6' Flowers sessile, in few-flowered heads; involucral bracts ± free, ± = leaves; calyx 6-lobed ..... SHERARDIA

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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