Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Plantaginaceae

View taxon page for Plantaginaceae

1. Plant generally aquatic, or plants in wet soil or mud

2. Corolla and calyx clearly present; plants in wet soil or mud

3. Stamens 4, staminode 0 ..... BACOPA (2)

3' Stamens 2, staminodes 2 (forming corolla throat ridges and with free, forked, filament-like tips in Lindernia)

4. Distal leaves scale-like; corolla 4–7 mm ..... DOPATRIUM (2)

4' Distal leaves lanceolate to ovate; corolla 7–10 mm ..... LINDERNIA (2)

2' Corolla 0; calyx generally 0, except occasionally present as minute rim on ovary; plants aquatic

5. Leaves generally opposite; ovary superior, styles 2 ..... CALLITRICHE

5' Leaves in whorls of 6–12; ovary inferior, style 1 ..... HIPPURIS

1' Plant generally terrestrial, generally of drier habitats

6. Corolla dry, scarious, translucent, persistent in fruit; leaves generally basal, veins generally ± parallel; fruit circumscissile ..... PLANTAGO

6' Corolla of petal-like texture, variously colored, but not scarious or translucent, generally not persistent in fruit; leaves basal or basal and cauline, veins generally pinnate or palmate; fruit generally not circumscissile

7. Leaves generally alternate (except proximal generally opposite in Antirrhinum, Cymbalaria, Mohavea, Pseudorontium; proximal-most opposite on seedlings in Maurandella), not all basal

8. Corolla base neither spurred nor sac-like, throat open, floor without longitudinal folds, or throat ± closed; fruit generally loculicidal or opening by irregular bursting near tip

9. Corolla 40–60 mm, lower lip not swollen, throat open; fruit generally loculicidal ..... DIGITALIS

9' Corolla 8–9 mm, lower lip swollen, ± closing throat; fruit opening by irregular bursting near tip ..... PSEUDORONTIUM

8' Corolla base spurred or sac-like (except Holmgrenanthe, corolla throat open, floor with 2 longitudinal folds); fruit generally dehiscent by terminal slits or pores (circumscissile)

10. Leaves palmately veined, entire to lobed; petioles 5–33 mm

11. Corolla base spurred ..... CYMBALARIA

11' Corolla base not spurred

12. Leaves ± round to reniform; neither stems or petioles twining; corolla white to pale yellow; pedicels 1–4 mm ..... HOLMGRENANTHE

12' Leaves hastate to sagitate; corolla pink, red, to violet distally; stems or petioles twining; pedicels 12–47 mm ..... MAURANDELLA

10' Leaves not palmately veined, generally entire, generally ± sessile (or petioles <= 30 mm)

13. Stem twining or decumbent

14. Plant glabrous (except stem base, inflorescence); pedicels twining or U-shaped, or bractlets subtended by twining branchlets, these reduced at distal nodes; leaves linear to ovate ..... ANTIRRHINUM (2)

14' Plant hairy; pedicels straight; branchlets subtending bracts 0; leaves ovate to hastate or sagittate — fruit circumscissile ..... KICKXIA (2)

13' Stem erect

15. Corolla base spurred; plant generally glabrous

16. Flowers yellow, red-violet, purple, or occasionally 2-colored; corolla lower lip >= upper lip ..... LINARIA (2)

16' Flowers blue to violet; corolla lower lip >> upper lip ..... NUTTALLANTHUS (2)

15' Corolla base sac-like; plant generally hairy (at least inflorescence), rarely glabrous throughout

17. Stamens 4, anther sacs 2 per stamen; fruit asymmetric, dehiscing by 1–2 pores near tip ..... ANTIRRHINUM (2)

17' Stamens 2, anther sacs 1 per stamen; fruit symmetric, dehiscent by irregular slit at tip ..... MOHAVEA

7' Leaves generally opposite, sometimes whorled or all basal

18. Stamens 2, staminodes 0 or 2

19. Leaves basal, long-petioled; inflorescence scapose ..... SYNTHYRIS

19' Leaves cauline, sessile to short-petioled; inflorescence not scapose

20. Corolla ± radial, generally 4-lobed, tube << lobes; sepals generally 4(5) ..... VERONICA

20' Corolla 2-lipped, 5-lobed, tube > lobes; sepals generally 5

21. Anther sacs of each stamen separated, parallel; corolla tube 4-angled ..... GRATIOLA

21' Anther sacs of each stamen touching, not parallel; corolla tube cylindric

22. Distal leaves scale-like; corolla 4–7 mm ..... DOPATRIUM (2)

22' Distal leaves lanceolate to ovate; corolla 7–10 mm ..... LINDERNIA (2)

18' Stamens 4, staminode 0 or 1

23. Calyx tube well developed

24. Stamens included in keeled lower central corolla lobe ..... COLLINSIA

24' Stamens exserted, lower central corolla lobe not keeled ..... TONELLA

23' Calyx segments ± free

25. Corolla spurred at base of tube

26. Stem decumbent; flower 1 in axils ..... KICKXIA (2)

26' Stem erect; inflorescence a terminal raceme

27. Flowers yellow, red-violet, purple, or occasionally 2-colored; corolla throat swelling obvious, not white-ridged ..... LINARIA (2)

27' Flowers blue; corolla throat swelling ± obscure, white-ridged ..... NUTTALLANTHUS (2)

25' Corolla not spurred, occasionally sac-like at base

28. Staminode 0

29. Leaves in whorls of 3; flowers > 2 cm, bright red ..... GAMBELIA

29' Leaves opposite; flowers < 2 cm, not red

30. Leaves generally narrowly ± ovate to ± round, ± entire; corolla generally white to pink ..... BACOPA (2)

30' Leaves ± lanceolate, toothed; corolla violet to purple ..... STEMODIA

28' Staminode 1

31. Fertile filament bases glabrous, attached to corolla at different levels ..... PENSTEMON

31' Fertile filament bases densely hairy, attached to corolla at 1 level

32. Subshrub or shrub; anthers glabrous; seeds angled ..... KECKIELLA

32' Perennial herb; anthers woolly; seeds winged ..... NOTHOCHELONE


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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