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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAIN FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted


Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae

1. Plant generally aquatic, or plants in wet soil or mud

2. Corolla and calyx clearly present; plants in wet soil or mud

3. Stamens 4, staminode 0 ..... BACOPA (2)

3' Stamens 2, staminodes 2 (forming corolla throat ridges and with free, forked, filament-like tips in Lindernia)

4. Distal leaves scale-like; corolla 4–7 mm ..... DOPATRIUM (2)

4' Distal leaves lanceolate to ovate; corolla 7–10 mm ..... LINDERNIA (2)

2' Corolla 0; calyx generally 0, except occasionally present as minute rim on ovary; plants aquatic

5. Leaves generally opposite; ovary superior, styles 2 ..... CALLITRICHE

5' Leaves in whorls of 6–12; ovary inferior, style 1 ..... HIPPURIS

1' Plant generally terrestrial, generally of drier habitats

6. Corolla dry, scarious, translucent, persistent in fruit; leaves generally basal, veins generally ± parallel; fruit circumscissile ..... PLANTAGO

6' Corolla of petal-like texture, variously colored, but not scarious or translucent, generally not persistent in fruit; leaves basal or basal and cauline, veins generally pinnate or palmate; fruit generally not circumscissile

7. Leaves generally alternate (except proximal generally opposite in Antirrhinum, Cymbalaria, Mohavea, Pseudorontium; proximal-most opposite on seedlings in Maurandella), not all basal

8. Corolla base neither spurred nor sac-like, throat open, floor without longitudinal folds, or throat ± closed; fruit generally loculicidal or opening by irregular bursting near tip

9. Corolla 40–60 mm, lower lip not swollen, throat open; fruit generally loculicidal ..... DIGITALIS

9' Corolla 8–9 mm, lower lip swollen, ± closing throat; fruit opening by irregular bursting near tip ..... PSEUDORONTIUM

8' Corolla base spurred or sac-like (except Holmgrenanthe, corolla throat open, floor with 2 longitudinal folds); fruit generally dehiscent by terminal slits or pores (circumscissile)

10. Leaves palmately veined, entire to lobed; petioles 5–33 mm

11. Corolla base spurred ..... CYMBALARIA

11' Corolla base not spurred

12. Leaves ± round to reniform; neither stems or petioles twining; corolla white to pale yellow; pedicels 1–4 mm ..... HOLMGRENANTHE

12' Leaves hastate to sagitate; corolla pink, red, to violet distally; stems or petioles twining; pedicels 12–47 mm ..... MAURANDELLA

10' Leaves not palmately veined, generally entire, generally ± sessile (or petioles <= 30 mm)

13. Stem twining or decumbent

14. Plant glabrous (except stem base, inflorescence); pedicels twining or U-shaped, or bractlets subtended by twining branchlets, these reduced at distal nodes; leaves linear to ovate ..... ANTIRRHINUM (2)

14' Plant hairy; pedicels straight; branchlets subtending bracts 0; leaves ovate to hastate or sagittate — fruit circumscissile ..... KICKXIA (2)

13' Stem erect

15. Corolla base spurred; plant generally glabrous

16. Flowers yellow, red-violet, purple, or occasionally 2-colored; corolla lower lip >= upper lip ..... LINARIA (2)

16' Flowers blue to violet; corolla lower lip >> upper lip ..... NUTTALLANTHUS (2)

15' Corolla base sac-like; plant generally hairy (at least inflorescence), rarely glabrous throughout

17. Stamens 4, anther sacs 2 per stamen; fruit asymmetric, dehiscing by 1–2 pores near tip ..... ANTIRRHINUM (2)

17' Stamens 2, anther sacs 1 per stamen; fruit symmetric, dehiscent by irregular slit at tip ..... MOHAVEA

7' Leaves generally opposite, sometimes whorled or all basal

18. Stamens 2, staminodes 0 or 2

19. Leaves basal, long-petioled; inflorescence scapose ..... SYNTHYRIS

19' Leaves cauline, sessile to short-petioled; inflorescence not scapose

20. Corolla ± radial, generally 4-lobed, tube << lobes; sepals generally 4(5) ..... VERONICA

20' Corolla 2-lipped, 5-lobed, tube > lobes; sepals generally 5

21. Anther sacs of each stamen separated, parallel; corolla tube 4-angled ..... GRATIOLA

21' Anther sacs of each stamen touching, not parallel; corolla tube cylindric

22. Distal leaves scale-like; corolla 4–7 mm ..... DOPATRIUM (2)

22' Distal leaves lanceolate to ovate; corolla 7–10 mm ..... LINDERNIA (2)

18' Stamens 4, staminode 0 or 1

23. Calyx tube well developed

24. Stamens included in keeled lower central corolla lobe ..... COLLINSIA

24' Stamens exserted, lower central corolla lobe not keeled ..... TONELLA

23' Calyx segments ± free

25. Corolla spurred at base of tube

26. Stem decumbent; flower 1 in axils ..... KICKXIA (2)

26' Stem erect; inflorescence a terminal raceme

27. Flowers yellow, red-violet, purple, or occasionally 2-colored; corolla throat swelling obvious, not white-ridged ..... LINARIA (2)

27' Flowers blue; corolla throat swelling ± obscure, white-ridged ..... NUTTALLANTHUS (2)

25' Corolla not spurred, occasionally sac-like at base

28. Staminode 0

29. Leaves in whorls of 3; flowers > 2 cm, bright red ..... GAMBELIA

29' Leaves opposite; flowers < 2 cm, not red

30. Leaves generally narrowly ± ovate to ± round, ± entire; corolla generally white to pink ..... BACOPA (2)

30' Leaves ± lanceolate, toothed; corolla violet to purple ..... STEMODIA

28' Staminode 1

31. Fertile filament bases glabrous, attached to corolla at different levels ..... PENSTEMON

31' Fertile filament bases densely hairy, attached to corolla at 1 level

32. Subshrub or shrub; anthers glabrous; seeds angled ..... KECKIELLA

32' Perennial herb; anthers woolly; seeds winged ..... NOTHOCHELONE

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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